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21

They share a note by name and another note by enharmonic equivalent. In your example, both C and F# have the note B. C has the note F, and F# has the note E#, which enharmonically equivalent to F. Of course B to F AKA E# is a tritone. The assertion that they only share one note discounts enharmonic equivalents. That’s all there is to that.


19

Notating this in a flat minor requires fewer accidentals, but those that it requires are more obscure. A player might well prefer well-known notes to less well-known notes. Remember that woodwind instruments have to know the exact fingering for every tone they play. An f flat is much rarer and more annoying to read than a plain e, while the g sharp, f sharp ...


18

Does a scale always have to start off with the note it is named after? A scale is a collection of notes with one of those notes designated as the 'home note'. When you're playing that scale in a learning context, like in a music exam, then you usually start on the note the scale is named after. When you're using the scale in real life music, you can start ...


17

In many cases, these key characteristics were the byproduct of various historical tuning systems. Many of these systems were out of date by the time the Romantic era rolled around, and in that sense these characteristics were no longer still the same. Especially with the advent of equal temperament, C major sounds just like B major, only one half step ...


16

The scale/chords are good clues to the key of a song, but at least as important is the tonal center. That's not as easy to define but generally it's where the song comes back to a place of less musical tension. IMHO the chord played when the song in question returns to a "rest" state is A major. Which means I would say the song is in A and the ...


15

"A minor" is a key. A piece being in a particular key means that the harmony will tend to resolve towards that note/chord, and mostly use notes from the associated scale. But almost all music involves borrowing notes from outside that scale. "A natural minor", "A harmonic minor", and "A melodic minor" are scales. In ...


14

Music can, and often will, have notes in it that exist outside of the scale of the current key. We call these outside pitches chromatic, and it's these chromatic pitches in the Paganini that led to your question. (In contrast, we would call music that only uses the members of the A-minor scale diatonic, which basically means "in the key.") But in ...


14

Upon listening to it, F minor is the tonic chord. It does have Dorian characteristics like you say, namely a major IV chord and melodic D naturals. Is that good enough reason to write it in a key signature of 3 flats? Ultimately it’s your call. Here are somethings to think about: The case for 4 flats: Players that read are used to having the key signature ...


12

This answer covers key labels and descriptions with a heavier focus on popular music styles, as opposed to classical music: I think the handiest way to lump all of that information together is usually "starts in X" rather than "is in X", when pieces of music have multiple keys throughout. Obviously if there is one main key (jazz standards ...


11

The tonic, supertonic, subdominant and dominant tones are the same in both major and minor. Both will use a leading tone. So, those four tones don't distinguish major versus minor scales. The sixth and seventh scales degrees vary in minor so there is some overlap with major. You could say the whole upper tetrachord is not a definitive way to distinguish ...


11

In addition to the musical answers already given, there's a simple arithmetical answer: given 12 different tones (not counting enharmonic equivalents), since any diatonic scale uses 7 of them, any other scale must share at least two tones in common.


10

The most important thing to know is where home base is, the tonic chord. Is C major chord your home, or is G major your home. The home chord feels like a peaceful resting place where the song could end. All other chords and notes are experienced in relation to the tonic. If you don't know where home is, you're lost. Finding the tonic is your highest priority....


10

Well, if you mean Yamaha PSR-F51, you "feel like you don't know how to play the piano" because that is not an actual piano keyboard. A realistic piano keyboard is a weighted keyboard (which is what the P45 provides), as it imitates all the aspects of a real piano keyboard: feeling, weight and inertia. Some keyboards even have mechanics that are ...


10

I agree with the other answers that both are possible, but would err towards four ♭s. Why? Well, the piece isn't really modal Dorian. The vocal melody doesn't use D♮ for the whole verse, and when it does go to that note in the bridge/chorus it's a big reveal. (In spite of The B♭ major chord having turned up earlier in the accompaniment already... but it's ...


9

The two points I heard him make were: the 12 tone system was not a refutation of tonality or diatonicism. serial composition techniques need not be restricted to atonal music. The first point is about the development of art styles up until post-modernism. In a nutshell new artistic styles were championed as superior to older styles. The attitude is one of ...


8

The three primary chords (tonic, dominant, subdominant) I IV V in a major scale are major chords = major (big) triads. ("big" referring to the lower third do-mi, fa-la, so-ti, these main triads are built by a major (lower third) and a minor third (upper third) and with other words by a major third and a perfect fifth ( measured from the root ...


8

That very same word is used to describe intervals, but there's no correlation. Or is there? There is. Or so I always thought. The mediant (3rd note in a scale) is a major third above the tonic (1st note) in a major scale and a minor third above in a minor scale.


8

There are several arguments against individual keys having particular emotional meanings (called "affects" which leads to the question of effecting an affect...} One good argument against is that various lists of emotional affects of keys is that different authors had different lists. Another is that Bach (among others) transposed works freely. The ...


8

It's a historical convention. Generally, multi-movement pieces are named using the main key of the first movement. The convention dates back (at least) to the suites for various instruments written as the idea of "keys" being important was gaining interest. Old Gregorian Chants were often named by appending the mode to the first few words of the ...


8

The Yamaha P-45 has weighted keys to make it feel more like playing an acoustic piano.1 They will feel heavy compared to the PSR-F51, which does not have weighted keys and so are very easy to press.2 1 The P-45 spec on the Yamaha website indicates "Graded hammer standard (GHS) keyboard", which means that the keys at the bass end of the keyboard ...


7

You've fallen, as we all have, into the trap that says 'this is in key X, so every note in it must be from the scale of X'. Not so, by a long whatever-it-is! The basic notes of any piece will consist of those from scale X, called the diatonic notes, and that leaves just five other notes which are non-diatonic. Otherwise called chromatic. That means coloured. ...


7

The key signature for the first five bars of the clarinet part is wrong, although the notes are correct for A clarinets (they are playing in E major). The clarinets change to B-flat from the 11th bar, and there the key signature of three flats is correct. It looks like the composer, or a copyist, or the publisher found it easier to put the three flats in ...


7

The simple answer By convention, one writes in B major rather than Cb major. The exception being when Cb major better expresses key-relationships. But some parts are in sharps at the same time others are in flats. Why? An answer that begs the question The bassoon is notated in B major, because it is playing with the strings, which are notated in B major. ...


7

Would someone be able to translate [Gould's] points? Gould is assuming familiarity with Schoenberg's compositions and composition techniques on the part of his audience. Hopefully you have at least some understanding of those. The important thing to know about Schoenberg with respect to Gould's comments here is that Schoenberg's music would not generally be ...


6

Harmonic and melodic scales are artificial 'melodies', but many pieces do borrow these in a melody that comprises short scales. There is in fact really a small tendency for rising melodies to use raised 6th and 7th notes and for falling melodies to use the original unraised 6th and 7th. However, this is of course not a rule, nor is it theoretically the most ...


6

The theory behind four chord loops is actually a hot topic in the music theory world these days. This YouTuber has made several videos about the theory of four chord loops, and this one is particularly interesting because it outlines some of the work of musicologist Phillip Tagg. Why Modern Musicians Love the Four Chord Loop I'll point out the relevant ideas:...


6

This is possible - in its fully-fledged form it's called Polytonality. Plenty of examples on that page. Another less extreme technique that is more common but could still be described as 'multiple keys at the same time' is modal mixture - using chords and notes from two different keys with the same tonic (e.g. using chords and notes from F minor and F major ...


6

Aside from @Tim’s good advice I also suggest learning the fundamentals of harmony and learning to recognize chords and simple chord progressions like 1-4-5, 1-6-2-5, 1-6-4-5, etc. This will often give you even better clues as to what the key the song is in. Using your hypothetical example, If the song starts and/or ends on a G chord or if G seems to be an ...


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