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As Max Reger brilliantly demonstrated, there isn’t really any rule. You may go from any tonic region to any other directly, just knowing how to voicing the changes. The “rules” we encounter all over the web are more stylistic and didactic than practical. For example, in Mozart’s time, the style employed banned too much tensions and modulations to far related ...


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First off, as Tim notes in comments, this has nothing to do with Picardy thirds (false or otherwise). I suppose if Beethoven had actually returned to the major form of the theme in a final refrain of the Rondo, maybe you could think of it as a false move into major, but he doesn't. This is an episode, which frequently modulates to other keys in a rondo. ...


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I don't believe the diminished 7th matters - playing the dominant 7th twice in the Beethoven is still convincing. But then I would find it still convincing if the minor theme came in immediately after the C cadence at 3:11. Perhaps it is because I have heard the piece often. Perhaps it is convincing because Beethoven has now used the theme several times and ...


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The term for a changing of key is 'Modulation'. The truth is you can modulate to any diatonic step in the scale. You would modulate to the type of chord the scale degree has, let me explain what I exactly mean by that. If we take C major as an example Modulation to the 2nd note. You can modulate to the second step (called the Super Tonic). So the key of ...


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I'd put those 'key changes' quoted more as modulations. Moving, in some cases so subtly that some listeners might be unaware - and also retaining the facility to return, subtly again, to the original key. They missed the two most common key changes in moders music - upa one semitone, and up one tone. Neither of which, particularly the former, leaves a ...


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'These are the rules'. But not for all music. Just the ground rules for this first exercise in modulation. Yes, of course music does much more than this! But not in this introductory lesson.


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WARNING: This got a bit out of control. Please don't be intimidated by the diagrams and the wall of text. Also please note that in the following (and in the music, generally) the word "modulation" means just a change of key. Obviously, these modulations are the most common ones. However, you can modulate from any key to any other key without much hassle. ...


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Rules in music have been developed of the practice - if not a real Pope has postulated some rules. There have always been music popes - theorists - which have their disciples and followers and composers - practitioners - who were founder of a new theory with their own community and their own school. Modulation is referring to the term mode - and a change ...


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I wouldn't say this is a "rule" so much as a guideline for the most common modulations. Most theory textbooks have something called "closely-related keys" or a similar term. They generally include (1) the relative major/minor, (2) keys within one sharp or flat (including their relative majors/minors), and (3) the parallel major or minor. That's the same ...


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Yes there is, though it's old. Check out this link: https://www.wmich.edu/mus-theo/courses/keys.html. It contains a translation of Christian Schubart's "Ideen zu einer Aesthetik der Tonkunst (1806)". When this was written, meantone tuning was standard. This meant that, in any key, the fifth was tuned flat so that the third was midway between the first and ...


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