10

Léonin and Pérotin were two of the most well-known and advanced composers of early polyphonic music, but they certainly were not the first. It's difficult to say when polyphonic music first emerged because it's origin predates standardized music notation, but its origins are at least a few hundred years before Léonin and Pérotin. A piece was actually just ...


8

A whole tone is a ratio of notes. In "just" intonation, there are two whole tones, 9/8 and 10/9. In equal temperament, there is a single whole tone with a ratio of 2^(1/6). What the author is proposing is to divide one of these (or other) whole tones into 5 parts. One way (with equal temperament) would be to use 2^(1/60) (the 60th root of 2) for a halfstep ...


8

According to Benjamin Wardhaugh's Music: Experiment and Mathematics in England, 1653-1705, p.37, Marchetto's system was 31-equal temperament. Here is one way that 31-equal can be justified: Let us divide the octave into some number N of equal parts, where N is yet to be determined. Marchetto made two further assumptions, namely that all whole tones are ...


8

A short answer: Scarborough Fair is not in the minor, but is modal: Dorian (that's where the major IV chord comes from) and Aeolian (the minor iv). The modal character is underscored by the progression VII-i, which is normal for Dorian and Aeolian, and the fact that there is no major V chord. And no, this doesn't come from Bach- its roots are probably ...


7

I'm not a programmer so I cannot say anything about the validity of the program but what I can say is that all of these parameters will not give you medieval music. I usually just completely abstain from interacting with these types of questions because I do not want to build an atmosphere of opposition in my post on this site but I think I can make a ...


7

There were others. Some one (or some authors) called the authors of several treatises "Anonymous #" for various numbers (#). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_music_theorists lists quite a few and assigns each a work, that one wrote. THere are also some not having a number but a location instead. Anonymous 4 seems to be the most commonly referenced.


5

Already the ancient Greek have known smaller intervals than semitones. (Die absolute Harmonik der Griechen, J.L. Paul). Marchetto assumes the standard 3-Limit or "Pythagorean" tuning of the music theories of his time in his description of the ratios of the basic intervals:* "octave"2:1 "5th" 3:2 "4th" 4:3 "whole tone"9:8 unison 1:1 the "whole tone" ...


5

There is definitely an organ involved, since full chords can be heard and the color of tone also does not match a hurdy-gurdy. It is true, that a hurdy-gurdy has drone strings by itself (the 3 on each side), which can be disabled by putting them apart from the wheel, but they are far weaker than the organ here.


4

Indeed they are similar! That particular Kyrie is called Cunctípotens Génitor Deus, one of many Kyries in Gregorian chant. What they did, back in the Middle Ages, was borrow it from Gregorian chant, slow it way down, and resurface it with a second voice in a medieval improvization technique called organum, a well-known feature of Notre Dame polyphony, as ...


4

I don't know a huge amount about plainsong however I can think of a couple of possibilities. The first thing to note is that there are definitely some differences between the two videos you post: the Kyrie has elements of polyphony whilst the Dies Irae seems to be mostly in unison. Gothic could refer to the specific period between the 9th and 14th ...


4

It is not necessary to notate pitches or to have names for the notes to observe that melodies have different characteristics and can be grouped by these characteristics. Neither is it necessary to notate or name pitches to understand that some notes in the scale are closer together and others farther apart. Anyone who played a stringed instrument or built ...


4

This is a very basic answer, culled from Music History class nearly 40 years ago. Organum started out ("Early Organum") as an improvisation of a single voice over a composed voice, usually simply in parallel 4ths or 5ths. As time progressed, this became more free ("Free Organum"), with the introduction of contrary and oblique motion in the improvised voice....


3

A few preliminary responses to the OP's questions: Yes, a whole tone can be divided into any number of parts. Traditionally in the modern Western scale, we have 12 semitones per octave, where each whole tone is divided into 2 semitones. But there is no reason we can't divide musical intervals in other ways, including dividing a whole tone into 5 parts (or ...


3

... on a more serious note, Russia inherits southwards, so one can find music specific to those: http://www.musicarussica.com/search/results?period=ancient There's also various folk choirs who can probably provide music or more information: http://www.golosa.org/ On the scholarship front, Gustave Reese in "Music in the Middle Ages" points to the marriage ...


3

Since no one actually answered I'll give it a try. A tetrachord is a specific melodic sequence of steps, specifically Whole - Whole - Half As an example, Do, Re, Mi, Fa, the first 4 notes of the major scale. The next 4 notes are also a tetrachord, Sol, La, Ti, Do. The Major scale is built from 2 tetrachords separated by a whole step. Chords, on the ...


3

Remember that Key signatures and the general Major / minor tonalities where an invention of the Baroque era. In medieval times it was the church modes that where the big daddy. I know this is not going to be the answer that you want but none of the key signatures where popular in Medieval times simply because they had not been invented yet.


3

That is a modern transcription of musica ficta. Musica ficta entry at Wikipedia Musica ficta entry at Brittanica.com The original music did not usually contain accidentals within the music. Musicians were expected to fill them in as needed. Most of the in-music accidentals (except possibly for B and B flat) are likely editorial additions. The ones ...


3

Greensleeves is usually written as either a passamezzo antico or a romanesca (qqv). The chords in a passamezzo antico are basically i,VII,i,V,III,VII,i,V then ending on a i later. The romanesca is just the second half of the passamezzo repeated twice. It's not really a tonal progression. Depending on which manuscript one reads, the tune is either in the ...


3

The Dorian was traditionally the first "in order", as the other answer suggests. The modern 7-mode system is actually an expansion of an older 4-mode system in the first millennium A.D. The 8 church modes of the octóechos system are derived from these 4, where each of the 4 has two different manners of melodizing. There is no widely preferred term ...


3

What, all of them? The sleeve notes, mentioning all the players and instruments on each track are here. Nice noise, isn't it! Praetorius-New-London-Consort-Philip-Pickett-Dances-From-Terpsichore


2

While you could say the piece is in A minor, it doesn't really use the tonal ideas brought from the common practice period. If it did, you would see E or E7 much more instead of Em. The piece builds more off the naturally constructed chords of the A minor scale which means it uses much more modal ideas and I wouldn't expect certain tonal ideas, like the ...


2

I don't know of an established term. I'd propose "prosodic counterpoint". While this would include more than the verse metre (for example inflection), "metric counterpoint" would be too ambiguous since "metre" has an established meaning in music that is different from that of verse, and the lyrics do not need to rise to the actual level of metered poetry ...


2

There were earlier notations: https://www.mfiles.co.uk/scores/seikilos-epitaph.htm Boethius did use letters from A to O to notate pitches around 500. There were lots of methods around. Guido advanced notation by using a staff system though there were probably earlier staff attempts.


2

A bourdon tone is added to this Hildegard antiphon because it's thought likely (or at least possible) that it was performed this way originally. While there is no direct evidence for this practice in Hildegard's music, it is found (written out) in much other medieval music- for instance, in the organa of the Notre-Dame School. Also, a bourdon or drone was ...


2

Yes, many ensembles do pay attention to differences in Latin pronunciation at different times and places. The classic (and only really comprehensive) guide is Harold Copeman's Singing in Latin, or Pronunciation Explor'd, 1990, which is out of print but possibly available used. I haven't found any online resources yet for historical pronunciation. There's ...


2

There's a recent video from Early Music Sources about this phenomenon (fivefold division) (but in the music of Emilio de’ Cavalieri), where you can also hear it: (wanted to post this as a comment, because it's a link, and about a different composer, but i can't)


1

I consulted Van Aristoxenos tot Stockhausen by Louis Peter Grijp & Paul Scheepers, two of my professors when I studied musicology in the nineties. In medieval treatises on music theory, generally eight tonos (gregorian modes) are described, in four authentic-plagal pairs tonus finalis tenor/dominant 1 protus autentus D ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible