There's no specific passage.
Gould suggests that Gibbons introduced the idea of modulation (as we'd call it in tonal terminology; Gibbons had no word for it). In a mode, you don't "change keys" as such: you just finish one piece, and then start chanting another in a different key, ahem, mode. That's why, in the middle of a piece of Gregorian chant, you ...
All modal jazz means is that the harmony is deliberately static so that the players can stretch out against it as well as with it in a more elastic fashion. It's not really something you could even say was "invented". While "Kind of Blue", put it on the map, there are boat loads of tunes preceding that album that are modal in at least sections. "Dark Eyes" ...
Our three major modes are Ionian, Lydian, and Mixolydian. The Roman numerals for these are:
I ii iii IV V vi vii°
I II iii ♯iv° V vi vii
I ii iii° IV v vi ♭VII
You'll notice that both Ionian and Lydian have a major V chord, meaning that the standard cadence of V–I is possible in these two major modes. (Whether it's ...
You're confusing keys with the modes of a key. And you're confusing what is 'easy' to do with what is interesting to do. 'Easy' can be bland.
Yes, if you're in C major (or one of its modes) it's easy to slip into G major or F major (or one of their modes). But those are 'easy' modulations, not interesting ones. And if it's a song, a shift of a 5th up ...
Wow, those two columns seem pretty pointless, seeing as they are completely the same everywhere except when they’re blank. It seems like it must be referring to the fact that it’s the 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 7th scale degrees that provide the different colors of the modes, while the 1st, 4th and 5th are more stable, foundational tones.
For example, the major and ...
The chord you are referring to is the ♭VI, F, not the VI, which would be F♯ in the key of A major.
This is one of several chords that are commonly borrowed from the parallel minor, in this case A minor. Some other commonly borrowed chords are the ♭III or C and the ♭VII or G. These chords are all very effective in major keys and can be found in ...
Your answer for V7 is perfectly fine, the bottom row doesn’t contradict it, it just has additional information: namely, that if a 9th is added to the harmony it would be a minor ninth. (Actually, I think I probably wouldn’t call it ♭9, since that would imply an alteration of the ninth, but no one anywhere would misunderstand it, so it’s a moot point.)
The circle of fifths is showing us what keys are most closely related. Keys that are adjacent have all but one note in common. This means that modulating from one key to an adjacent one will have a smooth transition more easily than less closely related keys, if "properly" executed. This can be boring, as Laurence suggested, but can also provide just what ...
Find the editor of your edition, and ask him (if he is still alive).
If you look at this collection on IMSLP, the two early editions say nothing about modes. In fact Forkel's MS has a key signature of 1 sharp, i.e. plain E minor.
Leopold's edition has the same key signature as your image but uses the now-obsolete convention for accidentals (i.e. flats and ...
While the guest answer makes some useful points about the edition, it doesn't really address the broader question (or Fux).
The basic answer to this is that the modern set of scales taught as "modes" are somewhat fictional, having little basis in historical use, particularly in polyphony. The 8-mode system of church modes was primarily employed as a ...
Character tones are those that most easily give away the character or harmonic nature of the mode.
If your tonic i.e. home note is D, and if that's the only note that's played, it does not taste like any mode. No third is played, so you don't even know if it's minor or major. You are free to imagine any kind of harmony around the D.
If in addition to the D ...
You don't have to force yourself in finding patterns you won't need.
I would keep it simple, and split the modes between minor and minor, based on their 3rd degree.
Let's keep locrian aside for a moment (even though I consider it more minor than major, practically speaking).
I think you are just missing the symbols/naming for the half diminished seventh chord:
half diminished seventh
A circle with a slash means "half diminished seventh" which really involves a definition of both the fifth (as diminished) and the seventh (as minor.)
Be mindful of the various diminish chord qualities and symbols:
o for simple ...
There is not just one modal style. Do you mean Medieval modal, modal folk, modal jazz, modal rock? I'll address two.
In terms of standards, the clausula vera is the standard cadence in Medieval modal music. I think it is worth noting that even in this early style the mode could be chromatically altered to form a cadence. Your outline of cadences in the ...
To try to simplify with an answer- Each mode has a parent key. Let's take C Dorian as a first example. Its parent key is Bb. All the notes found in C Dorian are also in Bb major. So it should come as no surprise that all the chords that fitted with something in Bb, as long as it doesn't modulate, will fit over notes from a song in C Dorian.
Let's take G ...
If it's just that isolated V chord that is borrowed, then no, I don't see any way to determine whether that chord is borrowed from Ionian or Lydian.
(It won't be borrowed from Locrian, because the Locrian V is built a half step lower. In D Locrian, V is built on A♭, whereas it is built on A♮ in D Ionian and D Lydian.)
Now, if there are other elements in ...
First off you came across a standard education method of exposing new students to the connection between modes are chords but that is just one ingredient to understanding music. By the way this connection isn't special to Jazz, it exists in classical music too. Not sure how you derived the statement "...were the ultimate key to jazz improvisation and ...
Aebersold and Berklee have a lot to answer for! They formalised a system of improvisation that was teachable and testable. But they gave a generation of players the idea that this was THE way to approach jazz.
It's harder to emulate Armstrong or Beiderbecke 'by numbers' (though their approach CAN be analysed and studied). I recommend you do so, ...
...justified with theory...
"Explained with theory" would be a better approach.
Really basic progressions like IV V or I IV are easy enough to explain in isolation, because they are such common fundamentals. Explaining VI I seems to be a problem only in the sense it isn't a common progression.
One technical quibble. If I is A major, then I suppose A major ...
The VII chord will be spelled (in key Am) G♯, B, D and F; making it VIIdim7. G♯dim.
The V chord will be spelled (in key Am) E, G♯, B, D, making it E7. Can't see where the ♭9 comes from. That woud be an F note, not needed in a four note chord. And not in E7 anyway.
Some of these sites simply copy info. across, regardless of ...
The key, generally, is to make sure that the scale(s) you pick contain the chord tones as you go through the changes. The non-chord tones are less important, but may be influenced by surrounding chords.
To keep it stylistically modal, the simplest solution is to alternate between F major and minor pentatonics:
Fmaj7 → F maj pent
Gbmaj7#11 → F min pent ...
I would recommend Brian Hyer's famous chapter "Tonality" in The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory. In it, he lists eight uses of the term tonality; I'll highlight just a few:
An adjective indicating "the systematic organization of pitch phenomena in both Western and non-Western music" (727). He goes on to say that this applies to ...
There's no specific name as to who exactly invented modal jazz but the elements of modal play have always been there in jazz. Jazz borrows a lot of influences from different traditions including classical music and it is from this classical music that history shows the extensive use of modes around the 19th century - but make no mistake, "modal theory" has ...
Let's think through this in C major:
G A D G
E F B E
C D G C
I ii V I
These chords are all major with the exception of the D triad, which is minor. But when we make that D triad major, it starts to sound like the dominant of G major (which is also D major). Thus now we're looking at:
G A D G
Dorian is a minor mode, and the v will be minor too. This is similar to the natural minor. The melodic and harmonic minors usually take the dominant as V, making the leading note a semitone under the tonic - far more convincing. That's what's happened here. No particular borrowing, just making things sound more tuneful.
It's important to realize that not every scale that can theoretically be played over a dominant seventh chord is also a good choice in a specific musical context. In the case of the given progression the following scales are used in practice:
G7 G mixolydian
C7 C mixolydian
D7#9 D half-whole, D altered, D (minor) blues
Eb7#9 Eb half-whole, Eb ...
Common scales that "fit" the 7th chord include:
Major pentatonic (1, 2, 3, 5, 6)
Bebop (b7, natural 7)
Lydian dominant (#4, b7)
Diminished (half, then whole steps)
Diminished whole tone (b2, b3, b4, b5, b6, b7 - most common on "#9b13" chords)
If you haven't seen this video from the "Jazz Tutorials" channel, I would strongly ...