26

Both are right, these marks are to denote the section you are playing and you don't play anything specifically for them. The proper name for these marks are rehearsal marks. In an sense you can look at them as practice checkpoints as they are typically where you would want to start playing if you needed more practice on that section instead of playing the ...


16

Those letters are just section identification. They are not meant to indicate notes to play. You might use them in a rehearsal where someone says "Ok let's all play section C now".


15

This is going to start off sounding off-topic, but I promise it's not. My mom was (before she retired) a high-school English teacher, and when she taught poetry, she used the following analogy: Imagine a game of tennis between top pros, how exciting and energetic it can be. Now imagine that same game, but remove the white lines on the court. Now remove ...


14

You may make some progress purely studying theory, but it will make a heck of a lot more sense when you have an instrument to play the various bits of theory on. Any instrument. The piano (or keyboard) is generally thought to be the best to work out theory practically on. To choose an instrument, think about what sort of music you enjoy listening to, or ...


13

You should certainly not feel confined to conventional musical forms. All the forms described in the Wikipedia article you link to were invented by somebody; you are free to invent your own. The list in the Wikipedia article is bound to be incomplete. However, be aware that people enjoy the familiarity of certain forms. To use the poetry analogy from the ...


13

It gets more complicated. The term 'refrain' comes from a time when poems were routinely set to music, and it is more appropriately left for the discussion of Classical and Romantic songs. At the turn of the nineteenth century, a popular or 'parlour' song was likely to have a verse and a chorus (or according to some old sheet music, the refrain). The verse ...


12

This is an issue of what we call hypermeter; specify, we can call it a hypermetrical extension. By hypermeter, I mean a metrical structure not at the level of the beat, but at the level of the entire measure. Try conducting along with "Amarillo"; it's in 4/4 time. After you're used to that, try conducting in 4/4 where every beat is the start of a new ...


11

Not every rondo is the exact same form. There are many different types of rondos with the most popular variations being A-B-A, A-B-A-C-A, and A-B-A-C-A-B'-A (the last one being comparable to your definition). A rondo is defined by repetition (the A section in most cases) and you start with one musical idea go somewhere else (typically refereed to as an ...


10

There is, in fact, a very deliberate relationship between Baroque music and emotions. This is a fascinating topic that sits at the intersection of muisc, history, philosophy, and rhetoric. As noted, Johann Mattheson's Der vollkommene Capellmeister (1739) is an excellent source on this topic. Extended portions of an English translation can be found in, "...


9

Lots of people, particularly in the rock and roll idiom, would call this the riff. It's an easily recognizable component that defines the song. Lots of rock songs are similarly defined by, and built around, a particular riff, so it makes sense that one would refer to that section of the song as such.


9

There are three different things here: the sonata(-allegro) form, the (multi-movement) sonata form, and the title sonata. The sonata(-allegro) form is a form of one movement. It's usually fast (hence the allegro) and the big structure is ABA, where the first A is called exposition, B is development, and the second A is recapitulation. Sometimes there's a ...


9

Any instrument will do for starters! That said... As Tim says, the piano is a great instrument to know, even a little. It's easy to see how the theory plays out across the notes in front of you. It's easy to pick out melodies on a piano, even if your technique is limited to single-finger hunt-and-peck. It also has a very large range, so there are very ...


8

In pop/rock music, the commonest terms are: Intro - a part that leads into the main part of the song Verse - you know what a verse is Chorus - you know what a chorus is Bridge - sometimes called a Middle Eight, especially if it's eight bars long - a part that leads from verse to chorus, or vice versa, usually used just once in a song to add variety. Pre-...


8

They aren't played. They are used to identify parts of the composition. This way you are able to communicate about the piece by using the letters.


8

Two leading music scholars of our generation, Jim Hepokoski and Warren Darcy, formulated what they call Sonata Theory (note the capital S and T!) to better understand the sonata process. They list five types of sonatas. The Type 3 Sonata is the sonata that you describe, with exposition, development, and recapitulation. The Type 1 Sonata, however, is a ...


7

Slim's answer is very good; there are pros and cons to both approaches. However, I wanted to add that following a particular form can be challenging and interesting, and can in fact add to the beauty and other aspects of a song beyond what one could do by ignoring them. For example, someone who is a natural at writing 4-piece rock songs might never dream ...


7

Okay... I'm going to take a stab at this. Note that while some of my answer will be from the perspective of Baroque music, much of it will still apply to some degree throughout the Classical and Romantic eras as well. First of all lets differentiate between the type of composition, and the form of that composition. By type of composition (there may be a ...


7

I have often used graph paper to create a left-to-right timeline where each cube of the graph paper represents a unit of time (say 5 seconds, or 15 seconds). I then "draw" the form, sometimes getting carried away with colored pencils and such. I then try to compose the music in-line with the formal diagram. This doesn't always work and sometimes leads to ...


7

Coda means "tail" in Italian. It's a tail-end part of a longer piece. A coda may be used however a composer wishes: to extend a cadence, to recapitulate some material, even to introduce new material.


7

I'll try to be specific and use terms in carnatic music to describe each aspect Each Raaga provides key phrases which are set forth by the notes which are allowed in the raaga. Aarohanam: notes(swaram) that can be played ascending Avarohanam: notes that can be played descending. A list of scales which are common is provided here along with audio: http:...


7

TL;DR: I think the answer you are looking for is yes. If you want to improvise for a specific audience, then having a form, some kind of structure, your piece would not seem "random", because it's easy for people to follow forms, especially if they are familiar with them. Long answer: What are you aiming for? Do you want to improvise an entire piece live? ...


6

If you're not following any existing form, it becomes encumbant on you to construct the form anew. Without form, you'll have real difficulty making the song listenable beyond a certain length. It's the same with programming. Beyond a few thousand lines, the lack of structure makes the entire enterprise unweildy. So it is very useful to learn how to follow ...


6

A phrase is like a musical sentence. Like a typical sentence there's a pause that signifies the end of a sentance that in a typical sentence is denoted by a period and in music is marked by a cadence. The Wikipedia article you link even states: In common practice phrases are often four bars or measures long culminating in a more or less definite cadence....


6

I don't pretend that this classification is absolute truth and applicable to any modern composition, but still. Majority of the modern songs have: intro verses choruses bridge (1 or more) outro Intro in many senses is like a prologue in a literature. Outro is like an epilogue. Solos usually go into bridges. Maybe this will give you an inspiration. :) And ...


6

The word "sonata" may refer to different things. In the Baroque period a sonata was just an instrumental piece (like Scarlatti's sonatas). I suppose, though, that the OP may be referring to the term applied to the classical period, in which case it can have two different, although related, meanings: 1) The sonata-allegro form, usually simply abbreviated as "...


6

Heinrich Schenker's notion of the "auxiliary cadence" (Hilfskadenz) starts to answer this very question: it tries to explain how a movement can begin away from tonic. I don't have firm data for this, but my experience as a musician (and conversations with other musicians) tells me that the general belief is that a composition's final key is its overall key....


6

Actually, the standard forms from the Classical tradition are still largely in play in the mid-nineteenth and into the twentieth century. Seth Monahan recently published a very well-received book, Mahler's Symphonic Sonatas, that shows how Mahler used the tradition of sonata form in order to create narratives within his works. Sure, these sonata structures ...


6

It means once through the 12 bars. "Chorus" typically means once through the form that you solo on in any improvisational context like blues or jazz. So if the form were different and lasted 32 bars, then it would mean one iteration through that 32-bar form. In this case it's 12 bars.


6

This answer repeats a lot of what I wrote in... Where is the antecedent and consequent phrase in this melody? My understanding is antecedent and consequent are the two parts of a period. The two parts are defined by cadences. The antecedent can end with a variety of cadences but not a perfect cadence in the main key/tonic. The typical thing is some kind ...


6

I think it's just a matter of where to put this new part. Of course there is no right answer, but most commonly this part would fit after the second chorus, before the very last chorus. Your new form would then be: Intro Verse Bridge Chorus Intro Verse Bridge Chorus New part Chorus (maybe twice?) Wikipedia has an article on Song structure, that also cites ...


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