26

Both are right, these marks are to denote the section you are playing and you don't play anything specifically for them. The proper name for these marks are rehearsal marks. In an sense you can look at them as practice checkpoints as they are typically where you would want to start playing if you needed more practice on that section instead of playing the ...


16

Those letters are just section identification. They are not meant to indicate notes to play. You might use them in a rehearsal where someone says "Ok let's all play section C now".


14

It gets more complicated. The term 'refrain' comes from a time when poems were routinely set to music, and it is more appropriately left for the discussion of Classical and Romantic songs. At the turn of the nineteenth century, a popular or 'parlour' song was likely to have a verse and a chorus (or according to some old sheet music, the refrain). The verse ...


13

This is an issue of what we call hypermeter; specify, we can call it a hypermetrical extension. By hypermeter, I mean a metrical structure not at the level of the beat, but at the level of the entire measure. Try conducting along with "Amarillo"; it's in 4/4 time. After you're used to that, try conducting in 4/4 where every beat is the start of a new ...


12

In the old days, someone woud have two halves of a coconut shell, and tap them on a hard surface. As pointed out by Tetsujin, this was back in the day - 1957, so I suspect here, it's produced in that way. No synths to turn to then, and horses weren't allowed in recording studios, usually. Nowadays it would be made electronically, and the sound either ...


11

Not every rondo is the exact same form. There are many different types of rondos with the most popular variations being A-B-A, A-B-A-C-A, and A-B-A-C-A-B'-A (the last one being comparable to your definition). A rondo is defined by repetition (the A section in most cases) and you start with one musical idea go somewhere else (typically refereed to as an ...


10

There is, in fact, a very deliberate relationship between Baroque music and emotions. This is a fascinating topic that sits at the intersection of muisc, history, philosophy, and rhetoric. As noted, Johann Mattheson's Der vollkommene Capellmeister (1739) is an excellent source on this topic. Extended portions of an English translation can be found in, "...


9

Lots of people, particularly in the rock and roll idiom, would call this the riff. It's an easily recognizable component that defines the song. Lots of rock songs are similarly defined by, and built around, a particular riff, so it makes sense that one would refer to that section of the song as such.


9

There are three different things here: the sonata(-allegro) form, the (multi-movement) sonata form, and the title sonata. The sonata(-allegro) form is a form of one movement. It's usually fast (hence the allegro) and the big structure is ABA, where the first A is called exposition, B is development, and the second A is recapitulation. Sometimes there's a ...


8

They aren't played. They are used to identify parts of the composition. This way you are able to communicate about the piece by using the letters.


8

In pop/rock music, the commonest terms are: Intro - a part that leads into the main part of the song Verse - you know what a verse is Chorus - you know what a chorus is Bridge - sometimes called a Middle Eight, especially if it's eight bars long - a part that leads from verse to chorus, or vice versa, usually used just once in a song to add variety. Pre-...


8

I'll try to be specific and use terms in carnatic music to describe each aspect Each Raaga provides key phrases which are set forth by the notes which are allowed in the raaga. Aarohanam: notes(swaram) that can be played ascending Avarohanam: notes that can be played descending. A list of scales which are common is provided here along with audio: http:...


8

Two leading music scholars of our generation, Jim Hepokoski and Warren Darcy, formulated what they call Sonata Theory (note the capital S and T!) to better understand the sonata process. They list five types of sonatas. The Type 3 Sonata is the sonata that you describe, with exposition, development, and recapitulation. The Type 1 Sonata, however, is a ...


7

I have often used graph paper to create a left-to-right timeline where each cube of the graph paper represents a unit of time (say 5 seconds, or 15 seconds). I then "draw" the form, sometimes getting carried away with colored pencils and such. I then try to compose the music in-line with the formal diagram. This doesn't always work and sometimes leads to ...


7

Okay... I'm going to take a stab at this. Note that while some of my answer will be from the perspective of Baroque music, much of it will still apply to some degree throughout the Classical and Romantic eras as well. First of all lets differentiate between the type of composition, and the form of that composition. By type of composition (there may be a ...


7

Coda means "tail" in Italian. It's a tail-end part of a longer piece. A coda may be used however a composer wishes: to extend a cadence, to recapitulate some material, even to introduce new material.


7

TL;DR: I think the answer you are looking for is yes. If you want to improvise for a specific audience, then having a form, some kind of structure, your piece would not seem "random", because it's easy for people to follow forms, especially if they are familiar with them. Long answer: What are you aiming for? Do you want to improvise an entire piece live? ...


7

This answer repeats a lot of what I wrote in... Where is the antecedent and consequent phrase in this melody? My understanding is antecedent and consequent are the two parts of a period. The two parts are defined by cadences. The antecedent can end with a variety of cadences but not a perfect cadence in the main key/tonic. The typical thing is some kind ...


6

I don't pretend that this classification is absolute truth and applicable to any modern composition, but still. Majority of the modern songs have: intro verses choruses bridge (1 or more) outro Intro in many senses is like a prologue in a literature. Outro is like an epilogue. Solos usually go into bridges. Maybe this will give you an inspiration. :) And ...


6

A phrase is like a musical sentence. Like a typical sentence there's a pause that signifies the end of a sentance that in a typical sentence is denoted by a period and in music is marked by a cadence. The Wikipedia article you link even states: In common practice phrases are often four bars or measures long culminating in a more or less definite cadence....


6

The word "sonata" may refer to different things. In the Baroque period a sonata was just an instrumental piece (like Scarlatti's sonatas). I suppose, though, that the OP may be referring to the term applied to the classical period, in which case it can have two different, although related, meanings: 1) The sonata-allegro form, usually simply abbreviated as "...


6

Heinrich Schenker's notion of the "auxiliary cadence" (Hilfskadenz) starts to answer this very question: it tries to explain how a movement can begin away from tonic. I don't have firm data for this, but my experience as a musician (and conversations with other musicians) tells me that the general belief is that a composition's final key is its overall key....


6

Actually, the standard forms from the Classical tradition are still largely in play in the mid-nineteenth and into the twentieth century. Seth Monahan recently published a very well-received book, Mahler's Symphonic Sonatas, that shows how Mahler used the tradition of sonata form in order to create narratives within his works. Sure, these sonata structures ...


6

It means once through the 12 bars. "Chorus" typically means once through the form that you solo on in any improvisational context like blues or jazz. So if the form were different and lasted 32 bars, then it would mean one iteration through that 32-bar form. In this case it's 12 bars.


6

Leitmotiv is a term, borrowed from the original German, that is often literally translated as "leading motive." More colloquially, it's a motive that serves to represent some aspect of a musical drama: it can be a location, an individual, an emotion, an item, etc. It's most commonly associated with Wagner, and indeed it was popularized by Hans von Wolzogen ...


6

I think it's just a matter of where to put this new part. Of course there is no right answer, but most commonly this part would fit after the second chorus, before the very last chorus. Your new form would then be: Intro Verse Bridge Chorus Intro Verse Bridge Chorus New part Chorus (maybe twice?) Wikipedia has an article on Song structure, that also cites ...


6

There is no attempt in this video to made an authentic clip-clop sound as is done with coconut shells. This sounds to me like a wooden percussion block. You can hear the various sounds they can make here. Schlagwerk Woodblocks Percussion Blocks


5

In one sense the questions are "clear" (as you say) but in a more important sense any answers are somewhere between misguided and irrelevant. Looking at a collection of musical works and identifying some common characteristics of them is what musicologists do for a living, and if what they find is something that a typical listener can actually follow just ...


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