16

This is rooted firmly in the practice of basso continuo, where the figures 2 and 9 had different harmonic implications. The basic idea is that, when a ninth is indicated, the bass is one of the chord tones, and the ninth is a dissonant suspension. But when a second is indicated, it is the bass note that is the dissonant suspension which must resolve downward ...


11

A typical convention for notating chromatic passages is to use sharps when going up and flats when going down. This typically allows to reduce number of accidentals (you don't need to write naturals) and yield a more readable score. http://www.musiccrashcourses.com/lessons/chromatic.html If D# is not just a passing note you may consider harmonic context. In ...


7

I would personally view this second measure as its own chord that embellishes the previous measure. In popular music, it's very common to have a IV chord over scale-degree 5 in the bass. Some call this a "rock dominant," and it's basically just a particular voicing of a V11 chord. (See also Is there a specific name for the use of IV chord over the V in the ...


7

I fairly strongly suspect that the auxiliary note on Beat 2 is called an unaccented auxiliary note while the auxiliary note on Beat 4 is called an accented auxiliary note because the auxiliary note on Beat 2 resolves on a stronger beat than the auxiliary note is on (Beat 3 in this case), while the auxiliary note on Beat 4 resolves on a weaker beat than that ...


6

The author wants to illustrate a suspension with and without decoration. This part: S: 7-(6) 3! in plain English means: `suspension: seventh above will normally resolve to a sixth where the top voice moves down by step and the lower voice doesn't move, but instead it can be "decorated" where the top voice moves down by step and the lower voice moves to a ...


5

It's not uncommon for melodies to include notes that aren't in the chord, especially on weak beats of the bar. The article linked is not really a good way to understand popular music or jazz music (and my common practice music theory isn't really good enough to give an appraisal of it's usefulness to analyse classical music in an explanatory way). The ...


5

It's a very common chord progression. The C/D works as a milder or more ambivalent substitute for D7. You could think of it as having a sus4. Other chords that work similarly are D11, Dsus4, D7sus4. When you have a "can this be analyzed as an X chord" question, why not treat it like a hypothesis and then try to prove or disprove it? If you think the C/D ...


5

Of course you can! Sometimes (but not always/everywhere!) these nonharmonic tones can be called "incomplete." Imagine you have a C major chord; if the melody plays E--F--E, the F is a neighbor tone. But if the melody plays C--F--E, the F is suddenly an "incomplete" neighbor because it wasn't preceded by E. The same would be true if you just had F--E, either ...


5

Yes, this is an appoggiatura. One of the things to remember with non-chord tones is that duration isn't really important; even if the non-chord tone takes up 99% of the measure and the chord tone only takes up 1%, that doesn't switch which tone is a part of the chord. It's all about the underlying harmony. (The meter, however, can be important, and some ...


5

The chord you are referring to is the ♭VI, F, not the VI, which would be F♯ in the key of A major. This is one of several chords that are commonly borrowed from the parallel minor, in this case A minor. Some other commonly borrowed chords are the ♭III or C and the ♭VII or G. These chords are all very effective in major keys and can be found in ...


4

Depending on where it is applied and how, and disregarding passing tones and the like, what could be non-chord tones in the bass actually end up changing the harmony. For a simple example, if the chord on the chart/being played by others is a G chord and the bass player plays an E beneath it, the chord becomes an E-7. Once you start adding different notes ...


4

You may be interested in what pop-music scholars often call the "melodic-harmonic divorce." By "divorce," they mean that the pitches in the melody are often vastly different from from the harmony that accompanies them. As such, the non-chord tones in this repertoire do not always fit the standard designations from the common-practice period like passing ...


4

So as Bob Broadley points out in the comments, the top part is written for a Bb transposing instrument (maybe tenor sax?), which means it actually sounds a whole step lower than written. So the melody in that bar starts on B, goes down to A then F#, then ends on a bend from A up to C#. All the notes in the accompaniment are just F#'s. From a quick listen ...


4

I might be in the minority here, but I think this is just a part of early tonal practice: writing a chord that our ears expect to resolve a particular way, but earlier composers resolved it "incorrectly" while still resolving all of the tendency tones. I see this in Corelli relatively frequently. Imagine a V65 chord that resolves to scale-degree 1 in the ...


3

What Roman numeral figures distinguish a 2nd inversion dominant triad with a suspended fourth from a root position dominant 7th chord with a suspended fourth? It's important not to lose the sense of showing harmonic function. 2nd inversion dominant triad with a suspended fourth B E A Bass B with 7 and 4 above = V7/4 A major = Dominant is "E" ...


3

Laurence's answer was already accepted, and it basically contains the relevant things about this question. But I'd like to try saying it with different words. I assume that by "working" you mean that the chord sequence feels sensible and likable, and not random or chaotic. And the "why does it work" question means, you'd like to know some kind of a musical ...


3

There is certainly no G natural in the chord of E major, so yes, you would regard it as a nonchord tone. When there is a clash like in the above example, it is called a 'false relation'. It is simply a chromatic contradiction between two voices.


3

Mind that G (and F) belong to the melodic scale downward of Am and G# is the lead tone of E7 - the V7 of Am. We also have DF in the next chord. This explains the clash of G and G#. Edit: I didn’t know the term false relation (Jomiddnz) I‘ve looked up this site and now I see ex.2 is the case I mentioned: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_relation “ Here ...


3

...justified with theory... "Explained with theory" would be a better approach. Really basic progressions like IV V or I IV are easy enough to explain in isolation, because they are such common fundamentals. Explaining VI I seems to be a problem only in the sense it isn't a common progression. One technical quibble. If I is A major, then I suppose A major ...


3

It's a suspended chord - A7sus4, sometimes called A11. The bass is as the penultimate chord, A, there's no M3, but a sus (D) which drops to M3 (C♯), to end on a perfect cadence on the key chord, D major. Guessing that it starts in the parallel key of Dm.


3

If you think about writing the notes out - D - X - E - F etc., then if you call X E♭, you're going to have to put a natural for the E. Call it D♯ and there's less 'mess'. On the way down? The opposite applies, so F - E - X - D will be more simple using E♭ for X. A (small) consideration may be if that X has a function - it may be a leading note to get to an E ...


3

I would be inclined to call it an incomplete neighbor unless there is a more convincing interpretation given context (for example, a 5-6 exchange). Let's take your example, for instance. Now take a look at the following: You can see how in this example, the G does resolve back to the F. In both your example and this modified example, the G is acting as a ...


3

In the first measure the notes (vertically are): C-C-F-A-C then B-B-F-G-C, resolving to C-C-E-G-C. This middle "passing" chord looks like G7add11/B. Coexistence of major third (B) and perfect fourth (C) is something to be used with much care. A simple solution would be to raise the soprano melody to D on the last beat of the first measure. ...


3

In this case, as the note E persists in the accompaniment, I don't think it 'resolves' at all. The whole bar is a Fmaj7 chord, the E isn't treated as a dissonance.


2

It might be simpler to refer to 'long' and 'short' appoggiaturas. From Grove's Dictionary of Music, 1880 (emphasis mine): With regard to its length, the appoggiatura is of two kinds, long and short; the long appoggiatura bears a fixed relation to the length of the principal note, ... but the short one is performed so quickly that the abbreviation of the ...


2

If you want to do a pitch analysis of this piece, you need to make sure you know what the actual sounding pitches of all parts are. As you are using a score with a transposing instrument on the vocal line (Tenor Sax), these pitches sound differently to how they look on the score. So, before starting an analysis, it would be easiest to transpose all of the ...


2

Do I have to stick to the rules of Bach and Mozart when it comes to preparation and resolution of non-chord tones in my classical music compositions? No - as a composer, you are allowed to do whatever you like. However, your audience is also allowed to react however they like! At the moment, your 'audience' on this forum seems to have a certain set of ...


2

If you are referring to non-harmonic tones, the answer is depends if you consider it part of the harmony. In a traditional sense when harmonizing with triads, it would almost always considered a neighbor tone with the exception of the dominant 7th. When using more complex harmony with a lot of 7ths and extended chords, you wouldn't look at it as a neighbor ...


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