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26

The 'add' modifier is used if a note above the 7th is added to a triad, and if the lower tensions are not part of the chord. That's why there's a difference between a C9 and a C(add9) chord. The first has a (flat) 7th, the other one doesn't: C9 = C E G Bb D C(add9) = C E G D Another usage is to add notes that would otherwise replace another note, as is ...


22

The answers so far seem to have missed the point. I think you're asking in a key where there is C♯ in the key sig., and you come across a C note with a flat sign just before it, what do you play. You'd play a C♭ note - equivalent on most instruments to sounding like a B. Reason being, any accidental changes a base note into sharp or flat, and a ...


22

The confusion arises from the accidentals. Your answer of a whole step would absolutely be correct if those were sharps (♯), but in fact those accidentals are naturals, not sharps (♮). A note with a natural in front of it cancels any previous accidentals, meaning play the note on the white key. So, E♮ to E♭ is a half step (go down one key from E) and B♭ to B♮...


20

The first part is played six times. The first five times you play the three bars under the bracket marked 1.-5., and the sixth time the bars under the bracket marked 6. These are called "volta brackets" but people mostly refer to these as the "first ending", "second ending" etc. (alternatively "first-time bar" etc.)


14

This is called a portato marking. In your example, the portato is notated with staccato markings (the dots) along with tenuto markings (the dashes). In addition to this notation, you'll also occasionally find portato notated as staccato notes within a larger slur (instead of including the tenuto markings). For strings, it indicates a slight articulation of ...


12

If you are reading a modern edition of the music, a C with a flat in front of it always means C flat, which is the same pitch as B natural. However in music scores written in the 18th century this is not always the case. For example in the attached violin part (by Vivaldi) published in 1711, it is obvious from the context (as well as from reading ...


10

You are misreading the staff. Those aren't sharp symbols, those are natural symbols. So E-natural to E-flat and B-flat to B-natural. In measure 4, the natural symbol is redundant because a note is assumed to follow the key signature (C in this case) unless there's a preceding note in the same measure with an accidental. Therefore the first note in this ...


8

The key signature change aligns with the Presto, to emphasize that the harmony at that point is still B D F#, because the bare B's aren't enough to show that. His other late sonatas also modulate briefly and surprisingly, but with more than just unisons, so they needn't compensate with such brief key signature changes. Changing key signatures in the third ...


7

I don't know the video, but normally one uses only 1 instance of each letter. Also (with exceptions), the best guess at a chord comes from considering the notes as stacked thirds. This would give A♭-C-E♭-G as the chord. This an A♭ major seventh. (The same as the OP G# major seventh.) (A G♯ major seventh would be G♯-B♯-D♯-F♯♯, not as easy to write though.) ...


6

The hi-hat is closed (and not hit with a stick - else there'd be a note!) on the first 8th, open (and hit) on the second, etc. There's some ambiguity whether we should hear a pedal hi-hat note on the main beats. If we DID want to hear 'chink tizz chink tizz...' it could have been notated as below. (We don't need the + articulations - after all there's no ...


6

The difference between C9 and C add9 is that the latter chord doesn't contain the 7th.


6

The voicing doesn't usually affect what a chord gets named, although there are slash chords which tell what the chord is, and what note is the lowest - its inversion. If he's calling it Cm♭6, then it won't be spelled with a G♯. G♯ is an augmented 5th. The ♭6 of C is A&flat. As soon as I hear stuff like that that's inaccurate, i ...


6

It's an accent that applies to both notes. In the Peters edition (2007, ed. Leslie Howard), bars 748 and 752, a footnote makes this explicit: Liszt's special accent requires a stress on all the notes under the symbol. In recordings you can often hear the accent implemented as an (extremely) momentary ritardando, as well as the usual increase in loudness....


5

This chord is called Am maj9 ("A minor major 9"). On a chart it would often be written just a Am maj7, which describes the basic chord quality. The additional tension (9) would be left at the discretion of the musicians. Note that major 7th chords are often written using the triangle symbol Δ. This is also true for minor chords with a major seventh (and a ...


5

Although not applicable to the piano piece in the question (the use of which is in the accepted answer), but to clarify for people that may see a similar mark used in student pieces, who may otherwise be confused: In some instructional method books and corresponding pieces, the mark is used to indicate a half step in a new scale or fingering position. ...


5

True, most chords are clear in their make-up from the name. However, sometimes, there needs to be an extra note added and it's more clear to write that at the end of a chord's name. Csus2, for example, needs C D G, as the sus knocks out the 3rd of the chord, E. But what about if we wanted to have a D note as well? C E G and D. That's where the 'add' part ...


5

Both appoggiatura and acciacatura are types of grace note. The appoggiatura ornament indicates a resolution of a suspension and does not have a stroke through it. They induce a feeling of "yearning". The notes take actual time in the measure relative to what note type is used to represent them. If there are multiple notes in the ornament, they should all ...


5

It seems to me that the purpose of the notation is to show the performer how to interpret what is happening. After the ambiguous passage, we do arrive at the start of what appears to be a new section, in a new key, with a new rhythm (cut time not 3/4), at a new tempo (Presto) - though it's not quite clear what the new key actually is, since we only hear one ...


4

The root of the question comes from the incorrect assumption that in Beethoven's time (and earlier) the notation for dotted rhythms was performed strictly according to the math. The math was certainly "strict" in the sense of showing the mathematically correct number of beats in the bar, but that was not necessarily how they were played. A single-dotted ...


4

This is a notorious question, and has been asked many times in the last 2 centuries - you are not alone! You're right in suggesting a polyrhythm - 4 against 3. The difficulty is to play it musically. If you play it exactly, I (personally) find the two notes are a bit too close for comfort, so I tend to overdot the top line a bit. It's also important to ...


4

Those 'words' are actually chord names. Most songs will have a chord or two that fit with the bar they're next to. In this case, Fmaj7 tells that the full chord is F major 7th, which cotains the notes F A C and E. The tab shows exactly that - F on the fat E string, and ACE on the top three strings. That couldn't be clearer or more accurate! The 'Am' word ...


3

Drum notation has several variants, so it's not straightforward. Hi-hat is the x just above the stave, and with an 'o' above it's open, with an 'x' or '+' above it's closed. So, there seems to be hi-hat played open on the 'ands' of each beat. The 'x' marks can't refer to the hi-hat, as there are rests shown for each. And then the question is 'how much ...


3

Somewhat of contradiction in terms, seemingly! Staccato (the dot) meaning to be played fairly short - around half the shown length - while the line means hold the note for at least its full duration! That said, in string playing, there's slight separation of the notes - even more confounding - but I guess this isn't for string playing, even given the '...


3

This question becomes very interesting when you start looking at articulation. It is very nice to articulate a fugue subject so that it is more recognizable every time it occurs. The subject of the first fugue of the Toccatta in D Minor (BWV 913) begs to have the first note a tiny bit stacatto. "Deet Dah--- Dah -dah- dah- dah- dah ..." But some entries ...


3

“Add” is used in chord symbols in certain cases where the usual assumptions don’t apply. Strictly speaking, a chord with an extension (9, 11, or 13) contains the triad indicated by the note letter (root, third, and fifth), the seventh, the interval of the extension, and all lower extensions. (See here for the complete picture.) A ninth chord has no lower ...


3

Well, we don't know Beethoven's considerations. I am wondering why Beethoven actually did make a key signature change which only lasts four bars. For such a short while you would often use accidentals instead. But since there is a key signature change I would say it makes sense that the change happens at the same time as the time signature change and the ...


3

It is unclear what it means, which means that whoever wrote it better include a note on what to do. It could be a typo. In the Finale music notation program there are options for 1st and 2nd endings. When you click on the second ending option, the program automatically puts a repetition sign at the end of the second ending unles you untick "Create backward ...


2

As the Guest answer said, it's simply a tied note indicating the local meter is 6/4, as the tied quarter notes commonly represent a rhythm that shows the second primary beat in a 6/4 bar. (Note ties used in a similar fashion for that rhythm in the left hand in mm. 14-15 later, as well as a tied half to quarter in m. 6. All of these clearly indicate a 6/4 ...


2

There is nothing really to explain here. Articulations on tied notes are not very common, but they don't mean anything different from articulations on non-tied notes. There are different opinions about whether the articulation should be written on the first or second note of the tie, but in a published score that decision has already been made. The reason ...


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