21

It's not an A♯, it's a B♭. The key signature tells you that all B's you come across are flat hence this B is flat unless otherwise stated. See the related question: Is a high A in the key of D flat still flat?


17

The note in the music is a B note.Of some sort, not an A of any sort! Count up, and that line will be a B. As Dom says, because of the key signature of one flat, which happens to be the note B, then that note is played as B♭. Whilst A♯ and B♭ are the same black key on the piano, they're not always the same note on other instruments - but ...


9

The two As are there to indicate that the left hand is playing two (logical) voices. One has an A half note while the other has a A quarter note followed by a G quarter note. In keyboard terms, this means that you play an A on the third beat and, without releasing the A, a G on the fourth beat. Release both notes at the end of the measure. If you look at ...


8

That's a marcato, indicating that this note/chord needs to be played much louder than the surrounding notes, even louder than with a more common sforzando accent (the wedge pointing to the right). (left: marcato, right: sforzando) The upside down version means the same; it's not unheard of that symbols are inverted when used in the bottom half of the score....


7

You are probably overthinking this. First, dynamics are not absolute, they depend on the instrument. If a score instructs a tuba to play middle C "pp" and a flute to play the same note "mf," the flute player might as well not bother, except for the theatrical effect of the audience watching him/her doing something. Second, the dynamic range of different ...


7

If all the stems point outward, it's easy, as you've noticed. If the note with a different duration is in the middle of the chord, you can write the noteheads slightly out of alignment so they only touch the stem that applies to them. For example, if you have, in the right hand of a piano score, a quarter note open fifth with a figure in sixteenth notes ...


5

It is sixteenth notes played the same way as the first part of bar 118 in the left hand where it is written out. It will be a total of eight sixteenth notes because the symbol is written betweeen half notes, so the half notes indicates the total duration of the figure. Note that the symbol is two beams which is how you can see that it is sixteenth notes. In ...


4

You start them at the same time and end the semiquaver after a semiquaver duration and the quaver after a quaver duration. Details depend on the instrument in question.


4

This can be done with an Acciaccatura. How it is played depends on the time period it was written in, but is largely up to the interpretation of the performer. In classical music this is often played on the beat with the rest of the chord slightly delayed and played immediately after. Sometimes, especially if the Acciaccatura falls at the end of the ...


4

As Kilan points out, absolute numbers are not used for good reason - no ensemble will exactly match the requirements. I see two possible solutions, since what you attempt is a sort of dynamic balancing: You divide into three groups and give two of them the identical first voice. You keep the two groups and adjust the dynamic specifications, so the second is ...


4

The lower voice in the first and third examples are played exactly the same. You hold each of the lowest notes of the arpeggio for half of the length of the sextuplet. For the middle example, you hold the first low voice note for the first third of the sextuplet and then the second low voice note you hold for the remaining two thirds of the sextuplet.


4

It is generally better to use three dynamics p, pp and ppp or mp, p and pp rather than only using the two p and pp and then trying to put something in between p and pp. Assume you see two scores. One score has these four dynamics: p, mf, f and ff. The other score has these four: pp, p, mf and f. Then you know that p is the softest dynamic in the first score ...


4

I have always seen accidentals as applying to the staff, not the part. Imagine you were writing for multiple voices and wanted to double the first F# with a quarter note sustaining until the half note. Simply doubling the F# with a downward pointing stem would be the correct notation: And nobody would argue that the lower voice is natural because it is not ...


3

Different composers have different ideas about notations for accents. Also, the meaning of the accents changes over time. In Türk's Klavierschule of 1789, he writes that notes marked ^ "must be played with somewhat greater strength," while in Beethoven's time period the sforzando marking (generally sf at the time) is considered by contemporary theorists such ...


3

In piano music at least, an accidental is in effect on the line or space on which it occurs, and for the entire measure. It is not in effect for the notes an octave (or more than one octave) higher or lower, or for the same note in the other staff. In your example, all the F's are played F#. So no, you don't have to (and shouldn't) put an extra sharp in ...


3

I would beam over rests if the rest comes in the middle of the beat or standard grouping, such as two sixteenth notes, sixteenth rest, sixteenth note. This keeps the grouping of one beat all together. In other situations, like eighth-note, eight-rest, eighth-note, eight-rest putting the rests under beams can also be useful because in 4/4 times it visually ...


3

In this excerpt there appears to be three distinct voices (I've added colour for clarity). The top voice stays in the treble staff, the bottom voice stays in the bass staff, and the middle voice starts off in the treble and moves to the bass. At no point is any of the three voices resting; so it should look like option 4: However if I am misinterpreting,...


3

As others have explained, that note is B♭, not A♯. The B♭ in the key signature applies to all B notes - regardless of position on the stave. It may help to think of the scales with a "each letter must appear only once" rule. So, for the key of F only one of the following is correct: a) F, G, A, A♯, C, D, E, F b) F, G, A, B♭, C, D, E,...


3

There are three bits - 'le-et me'. That one beat - here a crotchet, is split into three equal parts. They're known as triplets. So 'soul' has the first two beats of that bar to be sung to, and the last beat is now three equal notes, taking exactly the same time as one beat together. Probably a dupe, though!


2

The reason for a slash in a note is not that it is a grace note per se, but that it is to be played outside the context of the meter. In other words, it's a note that you "throw in" in whatever way sounds good to you. So, it's that a grace note is played outside of the meter, so it has a slash in it, not that because it has a slash in it, it's a grace note. ...


2

Symbols indicating dynamics are all relative! A f in one context might sound completely different than in another context. This means that you can use the symbols in a flexible way to convey your intent. If you have a sequence of crescendos, where each one lands at a louder level than the one before, then you could have them land at p, mp, mf or at mp, mf,...


2

You might not like this idea, but from the point of view of practical performance I would simply replace your "mp" markings with "p" and your "?" with "mp". That shows the general idea of "waves" of crescendo and diminuendo within an overall crescendo. Hoping that the same dynamic marking will have exactly the same dynamic level every time it is used just ...


2

There are various opinions about this. The "ultra-orthodox" view is that dotted rests are not even a thing. They don't exist. So you can't use them anywhere! The fact that people write music using them (and computer music notation software permits them) just demonstrates that many people don't know (or don't care) what they are doing. But you don't need to ...


2

You use two "voices" or "layers" or whatever your favourite notation software calls them, like this. A good notation program will get the horizontal spacing correct automatically. Whether Lilypond or Musescore are "good" by that definition, I don't know.


2

For orchestral parts recommended stave sizes are 8.5 or 8mm (the larger size preferred for string parts which often have two players per desk. (Note that A4 paper size is considered a reluctantly-acceptable minimum.) That's an absolute maximum of 10 staves per A4 page. 7mm is OK for piano music. That's 11 or 12 staves on A4. For a study score of a big ...


2

Melodic intervals are always measured from the lower note to the higher note, no matter which note comes first. So yes, if the intervals between Cb and C is just a semitone apart, it’s an augmented prime. Cb to Cb: perfect prime Cb to C: one semitone bigger —> aug. If the interval between Cb and C is one semitone greater than an octave, then it’s an ...


2

With the current settings, Musescore is unable to fit the measure as notated into the page. There are many options you have: Change the page: use a larger paper size or change to landscape page orientation Change the whole score: adjust margins, adjust note size, system size, staff size, etc. Change just that measure: adjust note size or stretch settings I ...


2

The question is confusingly worded but it sounds like you're looking for solutions to damp unwanted, unfretted strings from vibrating after the intended note duration. This is done by either left or right hand depending on the situation. Left hand - just rest a finger on the string to damp it. Right hand - rest a finger, or the palm of your hand to damp. ...


2

One way is to place any expression markings relative to that voice's placement on the staff. In other words, markings relating to the soprano and tenor lines should go above their respective staves, since they are the higher voices. Meanwhile, markings for the alto and bass should go below their respective staves. For example (with apologies for any ...


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