18

Notating this in a flat minor requires fewer accidentals, but those that it requires are more obscure. A player might well prefer well-known notes to less well-known notes. Remember that woodwind instruments have to know the exact fingering for every tone they play. An f flat is much rarer and more annoying to read than a plain e, while the g sharp, f sharp ...


17

There's two things going on here that may be a bit confusing. There are cross-stave notes, like you already noted. The rhythm is a so called 'tresillo' rhythm, that's often used in latin-american music. Here the rhythm is structured as 3+3+2 in eighth notes. The note groupings and accents reflect this rhythm. That's why it can seem a bit awkward to read ...


10

Can't understand why it's been written like that. The legend on top says to play the l.h. in time with the triplets - on the 1st and 3rd, for each beat. Poor writing. Crying out to be written in 12/8.


7

The simple answer By convention, one writes in B major rather than Cb major. The exception being when Cb major better expresses key-relationships. But some parts are in sharps at the same time others are in flats. Why? An answer that begs the question The bassoon is notated in B major, because it is playing with the strings, which are notated in B major. ...


6

The first two are repeat brackets. The bracketed section is played twice (at least). The third is a hand-written quarter-rest (not an easy symbol to draw; some hand-written scores even draw a mirror-image eighth rest for a quarter rest; usually causes a double-take during sightreading.)


5

In music, there's a notion that we call octave equivalence. It basically states that, in certain conditions, any instance of a given pitch, no matter what the octave, is viewed as equivalent to all other instances of that pitch. I say this because key signatures assume octave equivalence. Thus, even though the left-most sharp in the key signature is for a ...


4

Italian Augmented 6th - It6, It+6, or #iv6 - In C Major, spelled Ab7(no 5) German Augmented 6th - Ger6, Ger+6, or Ger65 - In C major, Ab7 French Augmented 6th - Fr6, Fr+6, or Fr43 - In C major, Ab7(#5) and Neapolitan 6th - N6 - In C major, Db/F The last isn't really augmented, but I included to complete the list of unusual chord symbols. What you might be ...


4

Normally these sorts of passages are written using smaller notes which usually add up to more than a normal bar. I think your passage would be perfectly clear if you were able to write the solo in smaller notes (like the arpeggios in Aarons answer) whilst having a full bar tremolo in the left hand written full size. The physical length of the bar still ...


4

The first two are winged repeat barlines. The 'wings' are common in commercial and jazz copying styles, making it easier to see the repeats when sight-reading. I've been known to emphasise them further with a red pen! You haven't questioned previous appearances of the rather scruffy hand-written quarter rests, so I guess it's the opening parenthesis ...


4

The └ mark means "apply pedal", and the ┐ mark means "release pedal". Here is a more standard notation from the Godowsky edition of the piece:1 1Ludwig van Beethoven, Sonata in C Minor (1798), Op. 13, "Pathétique", mm. 1-2. The pedal markings both in the OP and Godowsky are editorial, not Beethoven's. Beethoven did not give ...


3

I believe this means to play in 7th position: so that the first (index) finger plays on the 7th fret during the part below the horizontal line. In particular the last two notes should be played with barré on the 7th fret. This is a fingering suggestion, you may follow it or not, depending on what feels better to you.


3

It indicates a chromatically raised sixth above the bass. Here are examples of the same measure from other editions, both of which use the more common (in my experience) slash through the figure. (Note that both are in E major rather that F major as in the OP.) Waldersee Schmitz Both editions can be found on IMSLP.


3

For woodwinds and brass the standard is to write a separate part for each instrument. If you are combining parts in the score it's usual to indicate a solo as "1." or "2." and then "a2" (or "a3") afterwards. Each of the five string section parts is put on one part (although you could theoretically combine the first and ...


3

Solution A A fermata may be placed over the tremolo bar and can stand alone or in conjunction with other solutions. In addition to the fermata used here, there are notations for "long" and "very long" fermatas, which could be substituted. Pictures and descriptions of the various fermata types can be found here. "Sempre tremolo"...


3

MuseScore, a free (and quite popular) notation software, will let you create this kind of score, although with a little effort. You can create a score with a single instrument on a one-line staff, and then make the staff line and clef invisible. The staff will be filled with rests; color them white, or the same color as your page. (The rests can also be ...


3

For MIDI purposes, you'll have to stick with ties. Because standard notation is binary (i.e. whole note = 2 half notes; half note = 2 quarter notes; etc.) there's no way to build a "5" note without them. For a "performance edition", here are a couple of alternatives. Notate in 4/2 time, half-note = 76bpm, "swing" feel. This ...


3

The beginning of the pedal mark indicates that you need to suppress the sustain pedal and at the end it needs to be released.


2

I think half the problem is the stem direction. In the first example, it's easier to read due to the differentiation due to SATB (sort of), whereas the second example squashes it all together, with differences in the 'alto' part - notwithstanding differences in timings of certain notes. The '4/4 v 12/8' question still stands, and there's absolutely no need ...


2

It's pretty poor writing - or printing. The Fx marked prior is just that, not F♯ as in the key sig., but that note raised another semitone. The note in question is a simple F♯, reverting to key sig., but in reality should have a natural (♮) sign along with the sharp sign. That then would mean cancel one sharp (of the two), but retain the other. I guess a ...


2

Conventionally, a triplet is played so that its three consituent beats take the time of two "normal" beats. So as notated, you're right; each of those "triplets" consisting of an eighth and a sixteenth note would be played in the same amount of time as two sixteenth notes. Which means that all of your bars, as notated, are three eighth ...


2

One thing to add to Tim's excellent answer: Notice the first three eighth-notes in the measure are written in a way that implies two hands should be used (one in each staff). The remainder of the measure, the final 5 eighth-notes, are a bit ambiguous, and quite possibly spaced too far apart to be playable with one hand, but are certainly a single phrase. ...


1

Answering your first question: the triplets should be played exactly as triplets. About the rest, Tim's answer and the comments tell you everything else. One detail: The G after the C under "Trb" (last bar, right hand) is notated as a 16th note, but should also be played as the last note of a triplet. In other words, C-dot-dot G may be thought of ...


1

I can't open your link, but the notation is wrong, as you suspect! It would most commonly be written in one of these ways: (The fifth note in the third line should of course be an A!) There's another - simpler - way to notate it if the style of the piece is jazz-influenced, but it looks more slip-jiggy to me.


1

I didn't find anything about that mark. I even checked Arnold's treatise (basically, thoroughly). Ignoring the mark still leaves a normal progression (C7 to F to B° following a cycle of fifths.) Obvious interpretations are, misprint, part of the next symbol, editorial interpolation,.... As mentioned in a comment, it would be good to see if this symbol is ...


1

The combination of staccato and legato markings mean that the notes should be separated but not as sharply as a true staccato. Even with the pedal present, the articulation will come across. In this particular case, the pedal markings are also strategic to make the phrase clear. The fingering comes from Chopin.1 In the absence of a source explaining his ...


1

The top ones are repeat brackets. Usually, they don't protrude beyond the five lines. Whenever I have a new sheet to read, the first thing I do is make them look like the ones from the Real Book, with a highlighter. Any further ones get adapted likewise, but with a different colour. Just makes reading so much easier. The last sign is a crotchet (quarter) ...


1

My understanding is that old plainsong was deliberately non-metered. According to a book I have about hymnody the purpose was to distinguish it from secular, metered music. The quote from the book seems to reinforce that idea by promoting a flexible approach to rhythm: "...allow the singers freedom of rhythm..." He also says the various notes used ...


1

I consider jazz symbols as based on a hypothetical dominant 13th chord, in major, with all the extensions and modifications from that point of reference. So, the root is given as the specific pitch F#, then add notation to mod from a dominant seventh chord: drop the seventh, the major third needs to be lowered by two half steps (𝄫3), the perfect fifth ...


1

Regarding the question about notation software: This requires a program that allows for multiple voices. Enter the dotted half-note in one voice, then enter the quarter-rest and two staccato chords as a second voice. The software will understand that the two voices are happening simultaneously and format them as desired. For example, here are instructions ...


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