20

Through @Michael Seifert excellent super-sleuthing on identification of the music edition (in comments on original question), the mark is spiccato. The editor Joachim Stutschewsky explains this in another piece he edited: Divertimento on Swedish Themes, Op.42 (Romberg, Bernhard) On 2nd page has the following:


12

If it was written in the same octave that it was played in, it would stray too often into the much lower parts of the grand stave. By keeping it where it is written, apart from the notes on the bottom and 5th string, most of its notes are happily placed within the treble clef, with only three ledger lines needed below that for the lowest notes. Putting the ...


12

It's a form of staccato called staccatissimo. Normal dot over/under a note means staccato, where the note is shortened by about a quarter of its normal length. Staccatissimo, is an 'extreme' version, where the note is shortened by about three-quarters of its length. In this piece, those notes are played and let go of immediately, pretty well, the first F ...


11

I have found an answer in the book "Behind Bars" by Elaine Gould. She writes (p.521): A pair of thick diagonal lines, known as system dividers or separation marks, divides off two or more systems of orchestral (or ensemble) music on a page. [...] Where systems can be well separated, the dividers may be placed on the left hand side of the page only;...


11

I'm following up on @Tim's answer. I didn't use a comment because I wanted to show a picture and discuss it. As you can see, the notes that fit on a typical guitar fret-board fit nicely on the treble stave. There are roughly the same number of ledger lines above and below the stave. I personally have trouble with more than 3 ledger lines and in the picture ...


9

Now the music's arrived, your friend isn't right concerning the 3rd bar in the pic. (which is all we have to go on). The notes may be the same but the way they're played isn't. Notice the stems. Some up, some down. We have a lot of questions appertaining to this sort of writing, so this may well be a dupe. Treat the l.h. as two separate parts, which would be ...


8

Do you mean this? The first left hand bar is written out in full. The next bar is notated as a tremolo. Another way of writing the same thing. (It means 'play an 8th note tremolo', not 'repeat the previous bar'. The writer didn't HAVE to write it out in full the first time. And note that from bar 5 we DON'T repeat the previous bar.) I can't see your ...


7

These double oblique lines on the left side of the page are "system dividers" or "system separators". They show where a new line of music is beginning. They are often used in orchestral score where there are lots of different instruments in many staves. The system dividers stand out so that it easier to find the next line of music. The ...


7

It's a glissando. I can be notated a few ways. Execution depends on the instruments. A trombone can do it continuously with the slide. Keyboard, fretted, etc. instruments will have discrete pitches. The wavy line can also indicate an arpeggio on chords... ...where you sweep quickly through only the tones of the chord. Watch out for the different meanings.


5

There’s a core confusion here: the two passages you describe are not actually the same notation. The notation you describe in your first paragraph seems to be tremolo, correctly explained by your friend and illustrated in the answers by Laurence Payne and Old Brixtonian. The way to recognise this notation is that it has stems joined by bars like eighth-...


5

Like at bar 11 you mean? Your friend's right. They're called tremolos. You say, I now came across a bar with three of these notes and one quarter note. What do I do now? You tell us the bar number! I can't find what you're talking about. Or you could look up tremolo on Wikipedia: maybe that'll solve it.


4

These are called duplets. They tell you to play two quavers (8th notes) in the time of three quavers. These are used in compound time-signatures (6/8, 9/8, 12/8, 6/4, 9/4 etc.) where each beat consists of three sub-beats (or sub-divisions). As these time-signatures group notes in threes, a duplet allows you to have two equal length notes in the time of this ...


4

By default Sibelius produces this output: and by changing the Beaming settings: you can get the appearance you want: Sibelius does this without any manual tweaking of individual beam positions at all. But I agree with the other comments that say the note stems look too short. Also, the angle of the beam does impart some sense of the spread of the beamed ...


4

What you have at present is vague about whether the gliss starts early or late, but is pretty clear that it ends on the FIRST beat of bar 2. For clarity of exactly where the gliss starts and ends, I think you want something like this. Rests to show the beats? Or no rests because - well, there ISN'T silence! Maybe even my third example, though I can see ...


4

I would say three things: System position. Basically people think bass clef for the left hand, treble clef for the right hand. But, clefs can change. The grouping of two staves makes a system for the grand staff. Rather than clef type, it's the system position that matters. The lower staff is for the left hand and the upper staff is for the right hand. ......


4

To add a caveat to Tim's answer: this marking should generally be taken with a grain of salt — or more like a rather large pinch of salt — in music written prior to the 20th century. Most such markings on scores of older music are putting forth a performance opinion of the editor, rather than anything that the composer specified — and some editors are better ...


4

I would argue that the natural at 2 is necessary because of the flat at 6. If I were to come across this score, I would immediately see the similarity between these measures and wonder why some have a B♮ at the end and one has a B♭. The current notation prevents that possible confusion. In my view, no accidental is needed at 4, because the performer will ...


4

Alban Berg and Elliot Carter are among some to use chords with all twelve tones in them. This wikipedia list documents some chords and what pieces they have been used in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All-interval_twelve-tone_row


3

The note you are looking for is Dflat-minus. D is 9:8. Dflat is D times 24:25 = 216:200 = 27:25. Dflat-minus is Dflat times 80:81 = 2160:2025 = 16:15


3

Maths. I removed the final quaver rest from your example, because it occurs in both voices. This left a bar of 5/8 and I divided that into 15. Each quaver is subdivided into triplet semiquavers. The lower voice contains five quaver Fs. And in the upper voice, as each quaver is divided into a triplet semiquavers the first C is three triplet semiquavers tied ...


3

Thank you for including more information, it is very important to see and hear things in context, like knowing the key and time signatures in order to be able to give an accurate answer. The notes happen at about 3:56 and are at the top of page 4. The arrows indicate shifting the positioning so the 1st finger extends towards the nut and playing the F and Eb ...


3

How about something like 🎼⬆️ and 🎼⬇️ ? I just did this with emojis to demonstrate. I don’t know any standard symbols for transpose.


3

The brackets should be interpreted only for the marked notes, i.e. they don't apply for the whole measure.


3

The basic 'rule' - 4/4 bars should be split into two equal halves. That way they're easier to read. But if there's only a minim breaking that 'rule', it's not difficult to read anyway. And more and more, written music seems to be ignoring that, which makes some not so easy to read. The whole purpose of writing dots on paper is so that they can be read as ...


3

No particular names for the different styles as far as I know. You can refer to it as 'Henle house style' if you like (and if it IS unique to Henle). For what it's worth, I prefer the 'standard' style, can tolerate the Henle, but feel yours makes some stems annoyingly short. There's a lot to be said for learning to love the styles offered by your notation ...


3

All percussion instruments produce one sound from hitting the resonator and a different sound from the resonator vibrating. This is often overlooked because both sounds always occur together; however, using two sticks to hit the same drumhead simultaneously emphasizes one in comparison to the other. (This is precisely the kind of subtle instrumentation ...


3

Speaking as a physicist who's had to deal with the series expansion of "drum-head" vibrational modes, I can offer this: When you hit one spot on a drum head, you are exciting resonant frequencies based on energy you poured into that location. When you hit two spots simultaneously, you will get some mix of the resonant frequency set that each "...


3

The tie suggests to play and hold the Dm chord for 8 beats. If there was a rest in the second bar, then the chord would only be held for 4 beats.


2

Could that be another name for upper mordent? Or inverted mordent? In music, a mordent is an ornament indicating that the note is to be played with a single rapid alternation with the note above or below. (wikipedia). The precise meaning of mordent has changed over the years. In the Baroque period, a mordent was a lower mordent and an upper mordent was a ...


2

The l.h in bar 2 must persist at least into the next bar - the two '2' fingerings must refer to different hands! The brackets apply to just that note I think. There's certainly no convention of 'a bracket lasts for a bar, like an accidental'.


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