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74

Pretty basic and simple. Each key has 7 notes, with a different letter name for each. A B C D E F G but not always starting on A!! Let's take Gmajor G A B C D E F G - except the F needs to be F#. So far so good with your idea. Let's take Fmajor. F G A A# C D E F. Oops, there are two A notes - and no B. Try writing it out on the lines and spaces we call ...


64

Do-re-mi-etc. is "sol-fa" or "solfege". Sol-fa represents a major scale, with Do being the first note, Re being the second, and so on. I'm sure you can sing that scale. The A-G note names are absolute names for a certain note. An 'A' is an 'A' no matter what key you are performing in. There are two variants of sol-fa. Fixed do and Movable do. Fixed do ...


64

Noteheads take up one full space on a staff. (The corollary to this is that noteheads placed on a line take up half of the space on either side of the line.) When notes are at least a third apart (as in the first measure of the example below), there is plenty of space for two noteheads of standard size to fit on top of each other. But when notes are less ...


59

NReilingh gave a good general-case answer. I'll give you a specific case just to demonstrate that the concept is useful. First consider a C major chord. C-E-G, right? Then you make it into a minor chord by flattening the third, to get C-E♭-G. So far, so good. Now, consider an A♭ major chord: it's spelled A♭-C-E♭. But what happens when ...


48

Another approach would be to simply state the instructions either in a blob of text preceding the music page or perhaps somewhere between the title and the music: This though would require translation should the work be published for e.g. Klingons or Lojbanists who may be familiar with classical music scoring conventions but not English. % LilyPond ...


47

Why are we making such a fuss over this? If you want the piece to start mp, write 'mp' in the first bar. If you want a particular section played mf, write 'mf' at that point. Then 'mp' again. A confirmatory '(sempre mp)' might be useful at a new section of the piece. BTW, there is no such thing as 'regular volume'. If you want mf, say so.


46

You are ignoring the dotted line with 8va written above the upper G-clef. This means that the notes written in this clef should be played an octave above the written notes. (This notation is called All'ottava and is sometimes used to avoid ledger lines.) When you do this there is no conflict between the notes in the red box.


46

Is it possible there is a "dim" around m. 25 or so? Often a composer (or in this case, an editor) will request that an expression marking takes place over a span of time instead of instantaneously. One such standard marking is "diminuendo," which instructs the performer to gradually get softer. It sounds like the "inuendo" is simply the latter portion of a ...


45

I think this particular phrasing is rather confusing, as it is trying to talk about two concepts at the same time: enharmonic equivalence, and intonation. The concept of intonation (and temperament, which relates to systems of intonation) deals with the fact that even given a certain reference pitch (such as A4=440), there is no one absolutely correct ...


44

I'm assuming that you're talking about the one that looks like a blocky X.....this is a double sharp. Instead of shifting the tone up one half step, it shifts the tone up 2 half steps (i.e. 1 whole step). This image shows G double-sharp in the treble clef, and E double-flat in the bass clef. G double sharp is enharmonic with A natural, and E double-flat ...


44

The left hand is in treble clef.


42

The thing is that the "some tunings that define the notes in that way" in the Wikipedia quote include the most common tuning today, 12-tone equal temperament (12-TET). So, E# and F natural do usually sound the same. ...But not always. Change the tuning system and you can easily have an E# and an F natural that sound slightly different. Just intonation will ...


41

There are two clarinets (and two bassoons) playing in unison. This notation is one way of accounting for all of the notes. Note that for all of the stemmed notes, there are stems pointing in both directions. Stems up are for the 1st player, and stems down for the 2nd. But since a whole note has no stems, they write it like that. It looks kinda silly, and ...


41

This is actually tr, the notation for "trill," an embellishment (or ornament) on a note where you rapidly alternate between the main pitch and an adjacent pitch. There are many different types of trills; the style of music (and perhaps editorial notes) will clarify exactly which type is intended. You can check out more in the Wikipedia article.


40

It is related to "chunking", once you are used to keys, it is easier to quickly understand the single chunk "This piece is in G major" instead of having to see and interpret each of the individual sharp signs. This aids sight reading. With the way keys are conventionally notated, the presence of accidentals is actually informative: it tells you when the ...


39

Your notation may work for a free form melody, but that's it. How will you notate several notes played at once? How will you notate exact rhythms if you don't split up a bar into beats and subbeats and give each note an exact duration? Which octaves are those notes? I agree that standard notation (common music notation) is complicated, but there are pretty ...


37

According to the notes given at the beginning of my score: In large orchestras, from rehearsal [94] on, wherever the letter D appears in the 2 Flutes, Oboes, E♭ and C Clarinet parts, these parts are to be doubled. (EDITOR'S NOTE: The doubling ceases where the letter E appears in these same parts.) I've personally never seen this particular notation ...


37

If all the verses had exactly the same number of syllables, there would be no need. 'Varm' and 'korv' are both one syllable, so need a crotchet each, shown by tied quavers. But in verse 2, 'ha-de sme-tat' uses 4 syllables, which need to be shown on the dots with 4 quavers. The music is trying to show how each word in each verse is sung, and because they're ...


35

There are a few general rules. Most accidentals should be of the type found in the key signature. For example, in G Major, use G# -- not Ab. In F# major, use A# instead of Bb. If the accidental is in a chromatic scale, use sharps ascending and flats descending In any other scale, use the accidental that typically goes with the scale. For example, Bb and Eb ...


35

In a key where there are already some sharps (or flats) in the key sig., as here, every time one of those notes is played, it has to be sharp (or flat). In E, or C#m, the key here, every other note is natural - E, A, and B. So if a note sounding like a C needs to be played, it can't just be written as a C, because the player would automatically sharpen it, ...


34

It can be depending on the context . If you were using the F♯ major scale, you would have the notes F♯, G♯, A♯, B, C♯, D♯, and E♯. Another common example is in a C♯ major chord you would have the notes C♯, E♯, and G♯. The E♯ is an enharmonic equivalent to F. F is used a lot more though, since it is a naturally named note. In the same way, F♭ can ...


34

Wikipedia has it right. An accidental that is written in, as shown in the example above, only applies to the note in that octave until the end of the measure. You may be confusing it with the accidentals in the key signature which do apply to every octave. It's also possible that in the pieces you are playing you are seeing a courtesy accidental instead of ...


34

The conventional method is to write sempre mp in the first measure. Sempre means always. The exceptional measure could be marked as più forte ("louder"), followed by sempre mp again. Another possibility is rinforzando ("reinforced") with a dashed line after it to indicate the emphasized part. Individual notes can be marked as rfz.


34

Historically, keyboards didn't always work that way. So an A# and a Bb used to actually have different pitches. Our musical notation is older than enharmonic equivalency that you get with "well-tempered" keyboards. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Well_temperament) Just speaking as an amateur classical composer, different spellings of notes have different ...


34

Yes, one possible way is to clarify a "5+3" meter throughout. Depending on the music, this could be preferable to just writing 8/4 if the meter is clearly a 5+3 layout. As one example of how this could be done, consider something like: Notice that, in the second full measure, a dotted barline shows the distinction between the 5/4 and 3/4 portions of the ...


33

It prevents the appearance of an overfull measure. Without it, what we see on this staff is a quarter-note chord, a half-note chord, and a quarter-note chord. 1/4 + 1/2 = 3/4, and we're in the time signature 3/4, so the measure should be done already. Then where does that quarter-note chord on the third beat come from? It comes from another voice, as Todd ...


33

In the vast majority of classical music, the player is tasked with playing exactly the notes that the composer wrote. It's not very important for the player to understand the theory behind the piece, and a great number of classical players know little to no theory (at least until they reach conservatory, if they go that route) and don't suffer for it. Let's ...


31

Do you sit there and prevent the audience from clapping until you want that rest to finish its extended duration? I've always thought this is pretty much what a fermata like this is about. When classical music is performed, there are initial motions, playing of instruments, and final motions. Audience members who attend a lot of concerts usually understand ...


31

He used that same mark in Phrygian Gates to indicate any time there’s a change in a repetitive pattern. There isn’t enough context in the sample image to tell if that’s the case here, but that’s my assumption. In this case it looks like the main change is the lengths of the Ds and Cs in the pattern. It’s a pretty nifty and unobtrusive solution to make ...


30

First off 2 octaves above or below is a 15th because an octave is 7 letter named notes above a unison (P1) so to get the first octave you have 1 + 7 = 8. 7 more notes above that is the next octave so 8 + 7 = 15. However it is very rare because as you inferred, it is rare that a pianist will play that high up and also it is much easier to understand just the ...


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