41

This is actually tr, the notation for "trill," an embellishment (or ornament) on a note where you rapidly alternate between the main pitch and an adjacent pitch. There are many different types of trills; the style of music (and perhaps editorial notes) will clarify exactly which type is intended. You can check out more in the Wikipedia article.


24

The 'add' modifier is used if a note above the 7th is added to a triad, and if the lower tensions are not part of the chord. That's why there's a difference between a C9 and a C(add9) chord. The first has a (flat) 7th, the other one doesn't: C9 = C E G Bb D C(add9) = C E G D Another usage is to add notes that would otherwise replace another note, as is ...


21

The answers so far seem to have missed the point. I think you're asking in a key where there is C♯ in the key sig., and you come across a C note with a flat sign just before it, what do you play. You'd play a C♭ note - equivalent on most instruments to sounding like a B. Reason being, any accidental changes a base note into sharp or flat, and a ...


19

The first part is played six times. The first five times you play the three bars under the bracket marked 1.-5., and the sixth time the bars under the bracket marked 6. These are called "volta brackets" but people mostly refer to these as the "first ending", "second ending" etc. (alternatively "first-time bar" etc.)


14

This is called a portato marking. In your example, the portato is notated with staccato markings (the dots) along with tenuto markings (the dashes). In addition to this notation, you'll also occasionally find portato notated as staccato notes within a larger slur (instead of including the tenuto markings). For strings, it indicates a slight articulation of ...


12

Looks as if it could be a diminished seventh. On D#, the notes would be D#, F#, A and C. The customary notation is a superscript circle, but perhaps whoever printed the sheet music you saw couldn't produce that character and so typed a zero instead.


12

If you are reading a modern edition of the music, a C with a flat in front of it always means C flat, which is the same pitch as B natural. However in music scores written in the 18th century this is not always the case. For example in the attached violin part (by Vivaldi) published in 1711, it is obvious from the context (as well as from reading ...


10

To some extent you don't need to add dynamics to accentuate the melody. If the melodic line is clear and obvious, the perform should bring it out in some way. But to be sure there isn't any confusion add the specific dynamics. I think this... https://music.stackexchange.com/a/45138/23919 ...covers the basic idea. Put two different dynamic markings on the ...


10

I think that it doesn't speak for itself. However obvious it might be to some performers that the left hand has the tune, that is only their guess, without the authority from you, the composer. So you need some notation. To me, a louder dynamic (for example "ff") just means louder generally, and doesn't imply any particular any particular articulations. ...


9

It's called slash notation and basically means "decide your own comping rhythm for the duration of each chord," commonly seen on jazz/popular music charts: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chord_chart#Slash_notation Slash notation is a form of purposefully vague musical notation which indicates or requires that an accompaniment player or players improvise ...


7

Definitely a trill. A forward slash would be much taller, narrower and more slanted. Certain fonts leave the tail and the cross off the 't' almost entirely, especially when italic and bold. Below is a comparison of '/r' and 'tr' in a more standard, modern font (on the left) and an older, less common font (on the right).


7

I don't know the video, but normally one uses only 1 instance of each letter. Also (with exceptions), the best guess at a chord comes from considering the notes as stacked thirds. This would give A♭-C-E♭-G as the chord. This an A♭ major seventh. (The same as the OP G# major seventh.) (A G♯ major seventh would be G♯-B♯-D♯-F♯♯, not as easy to write though.) ...


7

The key signature change aligns with the Presto, to emphasize that the harmony at that point is still B D F#, because the bare B's aren't enough to show that. His other late sonatas also modulate briefly and surprisingly, but with more than just unisons, so they needn't compensate with such brief key signature changes. Changing key signatures in the third ...


6

It's an accent that applies to both notes. In the Peters edition (2007, ed. Leslie Howard), bars 748 and 752, a footnote makes this explicit: Liszt's special accent requires a stress on all the notes under the symbol. In recordings you can often hear the accent implemented as an (extremely) momentary ritardando, as well as the usual increase in loudness....


6

The voicing doesn't usually affect what a chord gets named, although there are slash chords which tell what the chord is, and what note is the lowest - its inversion. If he's calling it Cm♭6, then it won't be spelled with a G♯. G♯ is an augmented 5th. The ♭6 of C is A&flat. As soon as I hear stuff like that that's inaccurate, i ...


6

The hi-hat is closed (and not hit with a stick - else there'd be a note!) on the first 8th, open (and hit) on the second, etc. There's some ambiguity whether we should hear a pedal hi-hat note on the main beats. If we DID want to hear 'chink tizz chink tizz...' it could have been notated as below. (We don't need the + articulations - after all there's no ...


6

The difference between C9 and C add9 is that the latter chord doesn't contain the 7th.


5

You can use a variation of this snippet and use a dynamics context to display the time signatures, like in the following example: \version "2.18.2" \score { << \new Dynamics { \time 2/4 s2 \time 3/4 s2. \time 4/4 s1 } \new Staff \relative c' { \key es \major \clef treble << { g'8[-3^\markup { \italic "sempre ...


5

Flute or violin players can read as many ledger lines as you want, but extended passages in the very high register (A6 and above) are often easier to read if you use the 8va symbol. Once you get to six ledger lines then 8va is almost always a good idea. This is a typical example of appropriate 8va use: The same goes for low brass players in the low ...


5

The two examples aren't going to be played the same anyway. In the top one, there is a tune played by l.h., but that same tune is much more emphasised in the bottom one. Marcato or agogic accents would align the two bass clef parts better. It's funny that we never mark that the r.h. has to be played louder than the l.h. (in most pieces), which I suppose is ...


5

To an experienced musician you do not need to bring attention to the melody as an experienced musician will see this in the sheet music and they can hear the melodic line as well. For a less experienced musician, noting where the melody travels would be helpful and can be done with a ff notation as you did in your first example. The use of accents also works,...


5

D#07 means D#o7 whereby the o should be written like a degree sign: uppercase! If I copy it from this link it is written normally, I know how to type it in word, but in SE it doesn't work: D#o7 = D#°7 = dim7, stands for diminished seventh chord: root, min 3rd, dim 5th, dim 7th The notes of D# dim7 are D#,F#,A,C As you can see it is related to the B 9 ...


5

This chord is called Am maj9 ("A minor major 9"). On a chart it would often be written just a Am maj7, which describes the basic chord quality. The additional tension (9) would be left at the discretion of the musicians. Note that major 7th chords are often written using the triangle symbol Δ. This is also true for minor chords with a major seventh (and a ...


5

Although not applicable to the piano piece in the question (the use of which is in the accepted answer), but to clarify for people that may see a similar mark used in student pieces, who may otherwise be confused: In some instructional method books and corresponding pieces, the mark is used to indicate a half step in a new scale or fingering position. ...


5

Both appoggiatura and acciacatura are types of grace note. The appoggiatura ornament indicates a resolution of a suspension and does not have a stroke through it. They induce a feeling of "yearning". The notes take actual time in the measure relative to what note type is used to represent them. If there are multiple notes in the ornament, they should all ...


5

True, most chords are clear in their make-up from the name. However, sometimes, there needs to be an extra note added and it's more clear to write that at the end of a chord's name. Csus2, for example, needs C D G, as the sus knocks out the 3rd of the chord, E. But what about if we wanted to have a D note as well? C E G and D. That's where the 'add' part ...


4

It's very common in guitar chord voicings to omit the fifth without any specific marking for it, these are called "shell chords" (https://www.jazzguitarlessons.net/blog/shell-voicings-jazz-guitar) The fifth isn't a "guide tone," like the root or 3 or 7 which determines the quality of the chord (happy/sad/dominant/dissonant). It's a perfect interval, ...


4

Playing muted strings is a percussive effect with lots of attack, hardly any sustain, and no clearly discernible pitch (in theory). A section of vocalists could achieve a similar effect by using: plosives (unpitched "T", "K", or "P" sounds) grunting thumping their chests Be creative. That said, sometimes the muted string is really more of a really short ...


4

Muted notes in standard notation are marked by an x like this picture shows: Source: http://smartbassguitar.com/muting-bass-guitar/#.XaYg27LKGhB and the choir could sing/articulate these x notes by a toneless t- k The example would be interpreted: dum t-k dum t-k dum dum dum dum, dum t-k dum t-k dum dum dum dum.


4

As for the bar numbers moved below the score, there are two approaches. The first would be to just use \override BarNumber.direction = #DOWN to shift the standard bar numbers down. The second approach adds a centred bar number for each bar below the score. This second approach is best described in this snippet. For the first approach, you can use the ...


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