14

The 4 indicates that the A is to be played using the fourth finger on the D string, while the 0 indicates that the A is to be played as an open string. Given the double stop in the fourth measure, I suspect this is to be played as a double stop as well, rather than as a divisi. So each second violinist will be playing the A on two strings simultaneously.


9

The notes which have two dots below their heads also happen to have a half-time tremolo sign (the dash across the stem). This implies that you should play those notes as groups of two eight notes instead of one quarter, and the two dots are meant to make clear that both notes should be played staccato. In the example below, the first measure is equivalent ...


7

The suggested voicing may... be easier to play in and of itself be easier to play in the context of the piece facilitate the desired voice leading (e.g. it might contribute to the impression of a smoothly-moving bassline) sound better in the arrangement (e.g. you might want to avoid bassy chords if there a lot of other bassy instruments) sound better with ...


6

That's just a trill, tr. Different engravers over the years have given the symbol various different forms, and that is one in which the "r" is perhaps less obviously an "r," at least to modern eyes.


5

There are actually four possibilities: IMHO all of these are acceptable, although I find the first one easiest to read. The third one looks unneccessarily complicated and the fourth looks a bit 'unusual', but would probably be a good choice if there was half a page of this rhythm.


4

You can use the override: \override RepeatSlash.Y-offset = #3 in the layout block. \score { \new Staff \notes \layout { \override RepeatSlash.Y-offset = #3 } } NB Lilypond uses objects of 4 different types to engrave the symbol, so what sort of repeating figure determines which type-name you need to use in the override ...


4

As noted by other answers and comments, "tonality" can have a lot of meanings. But I assume in the context of the question that what we're getting at is something more like "musical structure." Why is it important to know about musical structure? And the best answer I can give to someone who is a relative beginner in music is to compare it to something ...


4

I think this question is terribly opinion-based. At least my answer is. First of all, it might be very difficult to motivate a 12-year old! She might be opposing the idea just because she wants to oppose things and/or people. Maybe if she saw someone that she looks up to, someone who fluently uses the concepts of tonality to do something that's cool and ...


4

SeuMenezes is right, and below is just the first example I found, even more extreme (bass clef and e flat major signature omitted): Contrary to my assumption this is fine (as far as those abbreviations are ever), since Elaine Gould in Behind Bars writes in chapter Single-note tremolos, Repeated articulation: Center on the notehead the number of ...


3

The typical use of square brackets is, to indicate an addition made by the editor, but not present in the original (urtext, in that case of the piano duet; this is actually by Dvořák and preceded the orchestral version (see Wikipedia). Its first printing can be found at IMSLP). Your proposed meaning is in my experience only expressible as text (e.g. "2nd ...


3

First, I view the ties above the notes (last beat and a half of the measures) as a phrasing indicator, to ensure you lead the final triplet into the last beat smoothly. Next, I suspect the composer wants you to maintain the initial note (the down-stem quarter notes) thru the beat as a "drone" under the triplets. So, double-stops. Finally, the tie ...


3

This is quite a guitar led question. There are several chords/voicings which are instantly recognisable when played on guitar – let's face it, there are far more voicings available on piano for any given chord – due to the restrictions of notes available all at once on guitar. The open E, or A, or D as examples. A lot of the chord windows I've seen in song ...


2

The name is volta brackets. Used to mark alternate endings used in conjunction with repeat sign barlines.


2

I could tell you many reasons why the concept of tonality and theory is important and helpful for musicians and especially for pianists. It is actually possible to push down the keys following the notes of a sheet without having an idea of tonality, but this is not the purpose of a musician. The question - not only in music - is: do you want to know what ...


2

Slurs are ambiguous: they may mean ties between note heads (notational convention), bow direction (technical instruction), or phrasing (musical expression). There's no particular reason why all three couldn't be in effect at some point.


2

The first arrow is tying into the eighth note. The quarter notes at the beginning of the phrases indicate a three count, at D, D, DE in the first bar, so the sixteenth notes would be a sextuplet run, tying the last note of the second sextuplet into the eighth note. I suspect that the last two eighth notes would be played Portato, separating the notes with ...


2

How similar or different are the music for the 1st and 2nd times through those 8 bars for the other instruments/singers? All parts must be notated with the same repeat-volta arrangement, so that if someone says "let's start again from bar 9" (or whatever) everyone has the same notion of where in the music that is. So it might be necessary to write all the ...


1

Not that I know of. The only "note for note" recreation I've heard of is Blue by Other People Mostly Do The Killing, which is a note for note recreation of the famous Miles Davis album Kind of Blue (which is definitely not "free jazz"). From what I read in the press at the time of the publishing, I think it was the first time such thing happened in the ...


1

I would do it differently. Eighth rest, eighth note tied to quarter note tied to half note. (I can't post graphics easily.) The suggested pattern avoids breaking any "normal" divisions and makes sight reading easier.


1

It is C♯! The piece is in key A major, and that has its key signature at the start of the line, including a ♯ sign on the C space. It only needs to be there to tell us that every C in the piece must be C♯. EDIT: The key of the piece is A major. The chord/s in each bar are chords formed by the notes in that bar, or the chords which can be ...


1

It's not 'correct' use of 1x and 2x brackets. It's occasionally done in song copies where 'writing it out' would mean a LOT of extra bars, paper and therefore expense. In this particular case you could do this. (But it isn't always that easy!)


1

This example is following Bob Gjerdingen's convention for schemata. From the introduction to his Music in the Galant Style (pp. 20-21): Names of scale steps. When I refer to the steps of a scale or key from an eighteenth-century perspective, I often use the names favored at that time. In place of the nineteenth-century English syllables doh, ray, ...


1

Violin playing uses frequent shifts of hand position. The most common positions used are 1, 3, and 5. The even numbers are not used so much in normal playing, though your example uses the 2nd position several times. (Is it an exercise in shifting positions, I wonder?) The fingerings on your example show the notes where there is a shift to a new position. ...


1

You could use a foreign language metaphor. A person can phonetically read some words in a foreign language, but have no idea the meaning of what they are saying. Importantly, accent and articulation can be handled poorly when "reading" a language you don't understand. Tonality is like the grammar and vocabulary in the language of music. To understand ...


1

Ultimately the choice of voicing should be driven by the movement of the voices from one chord to the next. Following the classic approach to harmony theory we strive to create smooth small interval movement from one chord to the next. There is a whole discipline devoted to this. This should not, in general, be driven by whether or not a guitarist can ...


1

So finally I've found the answer. The piece in question is Chaconne in G major by Anonymous from Schwerin. It's from the book Guitar Music from 16th - 18th Centuries, vol. 2 edited and transcribed by Adalbert Quadt. In the book he gives instructions on how to play ornaments: Ornamentation constitutes an important element in music of the seventeenth and ...


1

Place all the poems together in the front matter. This lets someone who's investigating the text independently of the music do so for all the poems together, instead of having to leaf back and forth. Placing each poem before its song would be slightly more convenient for someone who's interested in only one song of the cycle.


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