47

The notes with stems up are for singing in Italian, while the notes with the stems down are for singing in German. Thus, in the first picture of the original posting, in Italian it would be ... while in German you should sing In the second picture of the original posting, the Italian lyrics have only one syllable (“voi”) while the German lyrics have two ...


38

Actually, it seems to me that designating the key by a letter instead of the arrangement of sharps or flats is not simplifying the process. Simply stating the intended key by letter and accidental ignores the need for information that many less advanced musicians need to know in order to make sense of what is written in the sheet music. I can look at a key ...


35

Despite my comment, I'm going to go out on a limb here and guess that this is a strophic song, with verses having different numbers of syllables. The small notes are to accommodate the extra syllables in those verses that have more of them. When I can think of an example, I'll edit this answer to add it. As pointed out by Richard in a comment, this ...


35

To briefly expand on @Tom_C's answer (thanks to @Guidot's comment below): There is no notation for lengthening all notes of a chord; each note has to be dotted individually. More expansively... Both dots are required, because there are situations where one plays two (or more) notes together but holds them for different lengths. For example, here's an excerpt ...


34

It means play forte the first time through, and piano on the repeat.


27

The 'add' modifier is used if a note above the 7th is added to a triad, and if the lower tensions are not part of the chord. That's why there's a difference between a C9 and a C(add9) chord. The first has a (flat) 7th, the other one doesn't: C9 = C E G Bb D C(add9) = C E G D Another usage is to add notes that would otherwise replace another note, as is ...


25

This is just D doublesharp, which is enharmonic to E. The trick is that key signatures are not additive. In other words, any accidental added to a pitch is considered to be its own construct, not something in addition to what's already given in the key signature. As such, this is not D♯ that is then sharped twice again, but rather just D doublesharp.


23

It's great that you're thinking about where your line breaks should go, and putting them at natural "punctuation" points is generally a good idea. Breaking mid-measure though is pushing this too far. While it may fit the phrase better, it's a bit disrupting to read. Experienced musicians are very good at identifying phrases, especially when they're 4 or 8 ...


23

It's called a "staccato duro", and as the other answer correctly wrote, it's a marked staccato, i.e. shorter than the note duration and with force. For future reference: all musical symbols and their explanations can be found on dolmetsch


22

The answers so far seem to have missed the point. I think you're asking in a key where there is C♯ in the key sig., and you come across a C note with a flat sign just before it, what do you play. You'd play a C♭ note - equivalent on most instruments to sounding like a B. Reason being, any accidental changes a base note into sharp or flat, and a ...


22

The confusion arises from the accidentals. Your answer of a whole step would absolutely be correct if those were sharps (♯), but in fact those accidentals are naturals, not sharps (♮). A note with a natural in front of it cancels any previous accidentals, meaning play the note on the white key. So, E♮ to E♭ is a half step (go down one key from E) and B♭ to B♮...


21

The first part is played six times. The first five times you play the three bars under the bracket marked 1.-5., and the sixth time the bars under the bracket marked 6. These are called "volta brackets" but people mostly refer to these as the "first ending", "second ending" etc. (alternatively "first-time bar" etc.)


21

Looks like bars 4 and 5 are missing the 8va sign applicable to the treble clef. Without it, both hands will be fighting for room.


21

Through @Michael Seifert excellent super-sleuthing on identification of the music edition (in comments on original question), the mark is spiccato. The editor Joachim Stutschewsky explains this in another piece he edited: Divertimento on Swedish Themes, Op.42 (Romberg, Bernhard) On 2nd page has the following:


20

I would like to add a detail to Richard's answer. The bars sometimes has a 3+2 rhythm and other times a 2+3 rhythm. You could notate the long held chords in synchronization with that. So when it is 3+2 the chords can be notated with a dotted halfnote tied to a halfnote, and when it is 2+3 a halfnote tied to a dotted halfnote. Try it out and decide whether ...


19

I believe it's not simplified for some reasons: 1st: Music notation is an orthodox practice which has kept its standardization globally for common understanding. The Boethian notation (alphabet notes A, B, C, D...) was developed as early as the 6th century, but key signature as we known today was developed in the 16th century. Musicians could have chosen to ...


19

Notating this in a flat minor requires fewer accidentals, but those that it requires are more obscure. A player might well prefer well-known notes to less well-known notes. Remember that woodwind instruments have to know the exact fingering for every tone they play. An f flat is much rarer and more annoying to read than a plain e, while the g sharp, f sharp ...


18

The notes and chord symbols are two separate complementary things. The Dm chord symbol is a short summary, abstraction, description, simplification of the overall harmony which continues until the next chord symbol, and the notes ("dots") are a concrete realization written out as notes. You could ignore the chord symbols and just play the notes, even ...


17

This is a bracket indicating with which hand to play a note. The └ means that you should play that note with your right hand. The ┌ means, play that note with your left hand.


17

There's two things going on here that may be a bit confusing. There are cross-stave notes, like you already noted. The rhythm is a so called 'tresillo' rhythm, that's often used in latin-american music. Here the rhythm is structured as 3+3+2 in eighth notes. The note groupings and accents reflect this rhythm. That's why it can seem a bit awkward to read ...


16

The 4 indicates that the A is to be played using the fourth finger on the D string, while the 0 indicates that the A is to be played as an open string. Given the double stop in the fourth measure, I suspect this is to be played as a double stop as well, rather than as a divisi. So each second violinist will be playing the A on two strings simultaneously.


16

There are two separate voices, both add up to 3/4.


16

It means that the two notes are dotted: both of them are 3 beats long. This is the notation for chords: here are some examples here.


15

It indicates which staves the registration instruction apply to. But in fact your particular example seems confusing, because it indicates different stops for the two manual staves, even though the arrows link them together. And it doesn't make much practical sense to have the solo played on a single 4' flute (sounding an octave higher than written) ...


15

It's the other way round. The "C" is a leftover from the earlier mensural notation system, where each note duration was be divided into either two or three parts without the use of "dotted notes" as at present. Divisions into three parts were called "perfect" (probably because the catholic church invented most of the terminology, and the Holy Trinity was ...


15

You're correct that a whole rest is used for this purpose, but I've never seen actual note values used in that way. The whole+quarter construct seems to me the smart way to go. This is especially important when multiple voices occupy a single staff; in such a case, using a whole note only would lead to certain confusion on the part of the performer as to ...


15

It's possible to just have Bb and Gb. Look at Bartok's Mikrokosmos for some examples. It may take some wrestling in your notation program (and may not be possible on free ones). However, this is likely to be distracting, and the best way is probably to use a standard key signature corresponding to the closest tonality and use lots of accidentals. What you'...


15

They are sextuplets - 6 semiquavers in the time of 4. They probably thought it was obvious enough, since they are grouped clearly in 4 crochet beats.


15

With music notation, one important consideration is legibility; and on that count I’d suggest that your single-bar example fails the test, in that it introduces navigational complexity without saving much space on the page. There may well be musicologists who have devoted treatises to the subject, but I suspect a good ‘rule of thumb’ would be ‘does this ...


14

Given that it happens in all voices and all notes, it seems pretty clear, that a tie is intended here. Since the desired note length exceeds one bar and a decrescendo is intended thoughout, this is the obvious notation for it. The fermata on the last rest of course relates on a short wait to the next of the Enigma variations and so contrasts with an attacca....


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