46

Is it possible there is a "dim" around m. 25 or so? Often a composer (or in this case, an editor) will request that an expression marking takes place over a span of time instead of instantaneously. One such standard marking is "diminuendo," which instructs the performer to gradually get softer. It sounds like the "inuendo" is simply the latter portion of a ...


45

I think this particular phrasing is rather confusing, as it is trying to talk about two concepts at the same time: enharmonic equivalence, and intonation. The concept of intonation (and temperament, which relates to systems of intonation) deals with the fact that even given a certain reference pitch (such as A4=440), there is no one absolutely correct ...


42

The thing is that the "some tunings that define the notes in that way" in the Wikipedia quote include the most common tuning today, 12-tone equal temperament (12-TET). So, E# and F natural do usually sound the same. ...But not always. Change the tuning system and you can easily have an E# and an F natural that sound slightly different. Just intonation will ...


41

This is actually tr, the notation for "trill," an embellishment (or ornament) on a note where you rapidly alternate between the main pitch and an adjacent pitch. There are many different types of trills; the style of music (and perhaps editorial notes) will clarify exactly which type is intended. You can check out more in the Wikipedia article.


34

Yes, one possible way is to clarify a "5+3" meter throughout. Depending on the music, this could be preferable to just writing 8/4 if the meter is clearly a 5+3 layout. As one example of how this could be done, consider something like: Notice that, in the second full measure, a dotted barline shows the distinction between the 5/4 and 3/4 portions of the ...


29

Hmm. Lets take an example of how this would work in practice. Currently, when I see a sharp sign in front of a note (lets say F as an example) I know that the note required is an F sharp. It may be in the key signature already but that does not matter: it is an F sharp, always - no question. Under your system when I see a sharp sign in front of an F ...


29

Why does standard notation not preserve intervals (visually) It does, but I think you are probably not accustomed to reading it, or how it was developed. Let's first make an analogy with something familiar: reading English. What is the meaning of "right" versus "right?" I can read the words, but only reading the single word isn't going to tell me the ...


29

It would be more accurate to say that cut time "will sound twice as fast as the same notes played in 4/4 at the same tempo". That's essentially what they're trying to get across. But even that wouldn't really be accurate. Cut time is a duple meter, 4/4 is a quadruple meter. The difference is subtle, but it's still a difference.


26

This is actually two individual pitches. The bottom pitch, as you've correctly said, is middle C. The upper pitch is on the next ledger line up, meaning it's a third above C, and actually an E. (If it were a D, there would be no second ledger line necessary, since D is just one space above that middle C.) So in order to play this beat, you need to play ...


26

I believe the square notes (usually called diamonds) indicate keys that are silently depressed and held down. This technique allows those notes to ring sympathetically when the right hand notes are played. This specific piece is mentioned in this Wikipedia entry: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piano_extended_technique The relevant passage: Composers such ...


25

On single-stem pitches, the rule is always the same: the staccato goes on the side of the notehead that is opposite the stem. But when multiple voices are in play, the convention is typically to put the staccato pitch at the end of the stem, even if there's enough space to place it by the notehead. This means that, in multiple voices, the up-stem pitch will ...


25

In my opinion you're correct. I haven't seen them like in your example yet, but for me this seems like a repeat sign. Usually they have a dot on each side and are often found in drum parts for example: They are called 'Simile marks' and can also have more than one slash. One slash would usually mean to repeat the previous measure, two slashes would usually ...


24

The symbol indicates the chord should be played as a descending arpeggio. Standard convention is to go from low to high, so when the composer wants to go the opposite way, it needs to be clarified.


24

According to the list of musical symbols at Dolmetsch Online, that is a quarter-tone sharp sign; it signifies that a pitch should be raised by a quarter-tone. There is an analogous quarter-tone flat symbol.


24

The 'add' modifier is used if a note above the 7th is added to a triad, and if the lower tensions are not part of the chord. That's why there's a difference between a C9 and a C(add9) chord. The first has a (flat) 7th, the other one doesn't: C9 = C E G Bb D C(add9) = C E G D Another usage is to add notes that would otherwise replace another note, as is ...


23

It's an alternate way to notate an arpeggio. arpège (Fr.), arpeggio (It.), arpeggi (It. plural): (Italian, meaning 'in the manner of a harp') a spread chord played from the top down or from the bottom up indicated by a vertical wavy line, a vertical square bracket or a curved bracket (the latter two signs are now uncommon). (Direct quote from Dolmetsch. ...


22

This is called a double whole note or breve. Whereas a whole note is equivalent in duration to four quarter notes, a double whole note is equivalent to eight quarter notes. We see it often in transcriptions of older music, where the half note is used as the beat value instead of the quarter note. Consider, for instance, this example from Palestrina; also ...


21

I would recommend consulting the source where you found this. If it was a publishing company, they may have their own system of shorthand that will clarify this. Otherwise, this all seems relatively standard: 3*3*3*3* indicates the wind grouping with three performers each: three flutes, three oboes, three clarinets, three bassoons. The asterisks indicate ...


21

This line refers to the I, not to the "Allegro". As OP mentioned in the comments, the I stands for the first position, i. e. the first fret on the guitar. So the line means, that all notes under it have to be played in the first position.


21

I've always understood that the lower pitch of the harmonic second occurs on the left side: This is also true when additional pitches are added in. On beat four, the E is now on the right because the first second encountered is D–E (and no longer E–F). When you're writing separate voices, however, you write the higher pitch first, with the lower voice ...


21

It's not an A♯, it's a B♭. The key signature tells you that all B's you come across are flat hence this B is flat unless otherwise stated. See the related question: Is a high A in the key of D flat still flat?


21

Your #2 thought is the convention. Yes, this means you'll need to write lots of accidentals. That's okay. Contemporary players, especially those who regularly perform new music are used to reading lots of accidentals. A fair number of people (including myself) actually prefer reading accidentals over key signatures. In addition to writing in every ...


21

The answers so far seem to have missed the point. I think you're asking in a key where there is C♯ in the key sig., and you come across a C note with a flat sign just before it, what do you play. You'd play a C♭ note - equivalent on most instruments to sounding like a B. Reason being, any accidental changes a base note into sharp or flat, and a ...


20

It DOES preserve intervals (visually). What it does NOT tell you is whether those intervals are major or minor (or augmented or diminished). The distance of a space to its adjacent line will always be a second of some sort. This is because in part of history (which requires a discussion of Church modes and the history of notation), and partly because the ...


20

That sentence "Played twice as fast as written" indicates that someone must have a misunderstanding. Someone who probably thinks that quarter notes are supposed to be played at a certain speed. That person would need more knowledge and experience with both tempo markings and different kinds of time signatures. I suppose you could say that in the beginning ...


19

The harmony of the given chord in the 1st 2 bars is in E (major chord), the accidental in front of g you consider (minor third!) is referring to this Chord of E.


19

These are both shorthand notations that refer to music occurring simultaneously in other staves. The first notation (the slashes) simply tell the performer to "do exactly what the other violins (the staff above you) are doing." This is especially clear when you consider, for instance, the following two portions of the score: This is just a practical ...


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