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0

Based on your description, even without looking at the music, it seems like you really need two time signatures. Looking at the music, I can also see very clearly that some things work better in 3/4 and others in 2/4. The only way it would seem to work in 3/4 alone would be if you were trying to play with expectations, ie, if you want the standard accents ...


2

"Anon" here does not imply there is no "exact version." The composer or copyist referred to as "Anonymous of Schwerin" was most certainly a particular individual from that town. The only "anonymous" thing about him (almost certainly him, not her) was that we don't know his name. I would guess that the original manuscript was written in tablature. The piece ...


0

This parantheses mean ghost notes: Ghost notes and optional notes The best description of a ghost note, is a note that is felt but not heard. You will play the note softer, and without emphasis. The note is usually in-between 2 parentheses. In addition, notes in parentheses could mean optional notes. For instance, if a particular riff is repeated, but ...


0

This is a rather opinion based comment (and thus not necessarily appropriate for this board) but I think the 3/4 reads easier. (There are scherzos in 2/4 and 4/4 though.) I would go with whichever time signature you (the composer) thinks represents the basic pulse of the music. There can be short sections with another pulse but don't need signature changes. ...


0

I think you either notate what you want or allow them to choose. I would just write slash bars with chord symbols and a written instruction for what you want (e.g. "fill lightly behind vocal" or "improvise freely"). Then trust your musicians ;-) You can write "suggested fills" but that just begs the question - do you know what you want or not? Quincy Jones ...


2

My guess would be that the parentheses indicate that something is optional. Since most of them occur on a dot before a lower note I'd say that they indicate that its up to you to decide whether to hold the first note over the lower one or not. Also since the piece is Anon, probably there's no exact version and so on the top line in your example the parenth ...


3

It is unclear what it means, which means that whoever wrote it better include a note on what to do. It could be a typo. In the Finale music notation program there are options for 1st and 2nd endings. When you click on the second ending option, the program automatically puts a repetition sign at the end of the second ending unles you untick "Create backward ...


2

Hello and welcome to Music: Practice & Theory StackExchange. Traditionally, the last repeat sign, as a "right hand" repeat, would indicate that you go back to the left hand repeat sign at the beginning of measure 2. So, measures in order, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, (repeat) 2, 3, 6, 7, (repeat) 2, 3, 4, 5, (repeat) 2, 3, 6, 7 ... and you're done. I would mention ...


0

There's plenty of good material here, but I didn't see this mentioned, so pardon me if I didn't catch it in some other answer. If you really need to hint the players to this extent, I'd suggest that you use cue notes, and perhaps an expression to say what you want ("echo", "answer", or similar) for the first of your two-bar phrases. That's a strategy I ...


0

A look at primary sources would make sense in this instance. At the outset, anyhow, and as Gregory Proctor discusses in his important Ph.D. dissertation ("Technical Bases of Nineteenth-Century Tonality: A Study in Chromaticism," Princeton Univ., 1978), enharmonic tones such as B-flat and A-sharp do not have the same signification in the music of common-...


1

@ibonyun made a comment in the comments section to his answer. I need to answer with images which can not be done as a comment, besides there is also a need for this subject to be further sorted out. ibonyun wrote: LarsPeterSchultz I have never seen more than 3 slashes. Can you show me an example? It would certainly be non-standard. Yes, the 3 slashes ...


5

It seems to me that the purpose of the notation is to show the performer how to interpret what is happening. After the ambiguous passage, we do arrive at the start of what appears to be a new section, in a new key, with a new rhythm (cut time not 3/4), at a new tempo (Presto) - though it's not quite clear what the new key actually is, since we only hear one ...


8

The key signature change aligns with the Presto, to emphasize that the harmony at that point is still B D F#, because the bare B's aren't enough to show that. His other late sonatas also modulate briefly and surprisingly, but with more than just unisons, so they needn't compensate with such brief key signature changes. Changing key signatures in the third ...


0

Afro-Cuban doesn't admit a range of tempos broad enough to admit a Beethoven Adagio. This genre won't include examples with four or five slashes. Three means as fast as possible.


2

A flautist (panflautist?) proficient enough to get an orchestra seat has enough piano-plunking literacy to read bass clef, so transposed is safe. But if most of the material is closer to a concert pitch clef, use that, at least to not confuse the conductor, to thereby save a few seconds during rehearsals.


3

Well, we don't know Beethoven's considerations. I am wondering why Beethoven actually did make a key signature change which only lasts four bars. For such a short while you would often use accidentals instead. But since there is a key signature change I would say it makes sense that the change happens at the same time as the time signature change and the ...


2

3 slashes on a note means to play as many notes as possible in the space of that one note duration. The exact number of notes is not specified because it will depend on the tempo. This is the standard way to notate an unmeasured roll for percussion instruments (and tremolo for string instruments). If you see this in snare drum notation, then it would be ...


20

The first part is played six times. The first five times you play the three bars under the bracket marked 1.-5., and the sixth time the bars under the bracket marked 6. These are called "volta brackets" but people mostly refer to these as the "first ending", "second ending" etc. (alternatively "first-time bar" etc.)


1

First, C9 denotes traditionally a dominant chord: that's C7 with the major 9th. This must resolve somewhere (most standardly to F). Now Cadd9 is a C major triad with the major 9th. This is a major chord which functions as a tonic. You can pretty much always substitute Cadd9 for CMaj9, which is CMaj7 with the major 9th. The former is more "pop", the latter ...


12

If you are reading a modern edition of the music, a C with a flat in front of it always means C flat, which is the same pitch as B natural. However in music scores written in the 18th century this is not always the case. For example in the attached violin part (by Vivaldi) published in 1711, it is obvious from the context (as well as from reading ...


3

“Add” is used in chord symbols in certain cases where the usual assumptions don’t apply. Strictly speaking, a chord with an extension (9, 11, or 13) contains the triad indicated by the note letter (root, third, and fifth), the seventh, the interval of the extension, and all lower extensions. (See here for the complete picture.) A ninth chord has no lower ...


6

The difference between C9 and C add9 is that the latter chord doesn't contain the 7th.


22

The answers so far seem to have missed the point. I think you're asking in a key where there is C♯ in the key sig., and you come across a C note with a flat sign just before it, what do you play. You'd play a C♭ note - equivalent on most instruments to sounding like a B. Reason being, any accidental changes a base note into sharp or flat, and a ...


2

I assume standard convention here as opposed to repeating any accidental to each note, where it applies. A natural sign neutralizes a previous accidental (whether part of key signature or individual), so c# naturalized returns to c, b flat naturalized returns to b. A repeated sharp to an already sharped note does not accumulate, you still have a simple ...


0

C♭ is always B♮ (in equal temperament)


0

maybe you mean c natural? it is called c natural not sharp or flat. if you play c natural in D major scale then you have played accidental. that's it.


5

True, most chords are clear in their make-up from the name. However, sometimes, there needs to be an extra note added and it's more clear to write that at the end of a chord's name. Csus2, for example, needs C D G, as the sus knocks out the 3rd of the chord, E. But what about if we wanted to have a D note as well? C E G and D. That's where the 'add' part ...


26

The 'add' modifier is used if a note above the 7th is added to a triad, and if the lower tensions are not part of the chord. That's why there's a difference between a C9 and a C(add9) chord. The first has a (flat) 7th, the other one doesn't: C9 = C E G Bb D C(add9) = C E G D Another usage is to add notes that would otherwise replace another note, as is ...


1

The concept of having even measures is more modern than Renaissance and Baroque music notation. The melody dictates how the music is divided on the page, not the time signature. Therefore it is very common to find seemingly "incomplete" measures. Composers of that era did not place a new time signature at each change the way we do today.


1

I think you are looking for "𝄋" (the Segno), and "D.S." (Dal Segno). "Dal Segno" is Italian for "From the Sign", where as "𝄋" is the sign. These are instructions used in musical scores for jumps (although usually for jumping backwards). A similar symbol is the coda symbol "𝄌". There are also a handful of related phrases (in Italian) for jumping ...


1

I can't add anything to the other answers that say what the notation actually means. But what I can add is a suggestion for how to remember which is which: appoggiatura sounds like the word podgy so its notes are fatter. So the other ornament, acciaccatura must be the ornament with the crushed rhythm.


1

Every rendition I've ever heard, as I remember it in my head, sounds like it's based over a simple subdivision of that beat into six: 1 2 3 4 5 6 upper taa---ta: * - - - - * lower ta-ta-ta: * - * - * - This is what the notation says. The upper beam of notes ends with a sixteenth, which is half of the value of the corresponding eight in ...


5

Both appoggiatura and acciacatura are types of grace note. The appoggiatura ornament indicates a resolution of a suspension and does not have a stroke through it. They induce a feeling of "yearning". The notes take actual time in the measure relative to what note type is used to represent them. If there are multiple notes in the ornament, they should all ...


4

The root of the question comes from the incorrect assumption that in Beethoven's time (and earlier) the notation for dotted rhythms was performed strictly according to the math. The math was certainly "strict" in the sense of showing the mathematically correct number of beats in the bar, but that was not necessarily how they were played. A single-dotted ...


4

This is a notorious question, and has been asked many times in the last 2 centuries - you are not alone! You're right in suggesting a polyrhythm - 4 against 3. The difficulty is to play it musically. If you play it exactly, I (personally) find the two notes are a bit too close for comfort, so I tend to overdot the top line a bit. It's also important to ...


3

This question becomes very interesting when you start looking at articulation. It is very nice to articulate a fugue subject so that it is more recognizable every time it occurs. The subject of the first fugue of the Toccatta in D Minor (BWV 913) begs to have the first note a tiny bit stacatto. "Deet Dah--- Dah -dah- dah- dah- dah ..." But some entries ...


6

The hi-hat is closed (and not hit with a stick - else there'd be a note!) on the first 8th, open (and hit) on the second, etc. There's some ambiguity whether we should hear a pedal hi-hat note on the main beats. If we DID want to hear 'chink tizz chink tizz...' it could have been notated as below. (We don't need the + articulations - after all there's no ...


1

Context is key! The video is a guitar lesson where the presenter is demonstrating some open campfire voicings that give a spooky effect. In the clip highlighted by the OP, he's showing the basic E minor open voicing, but with the open-b moved up to the c on the first fret. He calls this E minor b6 and demonstrates how to use it to play "Laura Palmer's Theme" ...


1

EDIT: Your question and the linked video really seem like two different issues. You asked about voicings but the guitar lesson video issue is more about identifying a bona fide chord. I think the guitar lesson video is transcribing the music incorrectly. The video's transcription - roughly tones ^5 b^6 ^5 ^1 b^7 ^1 over a complete, root position minor ...


1

Some people insist that chord symbols tell us nothing about voicing or inversion (with the exception of 'slash bass' notation). However, in practice, it can be useful to distinguish between C6 and Am7. And (to be a little more controversial - this one tends to arouse the haters :-) between C(add2) and C(add 9). So, although Cm♭6 (note that's got ...


3

Drum notation has several variants, so it's not straightforward. Hi-hat is the x just above the stave, and with an 'o' above it's open, with an 'x' or '+' above it's closed. So, there seems to be hi-hat played open on the 'ands' of each beat. The 'x' marks can't refer to the hi-hat, as there are rests shown for each. And then the question is 'how much ...


1

That's almost correct. The flags on the first note on the third quarter of the first bar should go to the right, and if it's supposed to be a 16th note (it's hard to decipher) there's no need for a dot on the rest immediately after. The second bar would be easier to read if you combined the two 16th rests into one 8th rest.


6

The voicing doesn't usually affect what a chord gets named, although there are slash chords which tell what the chord is, and what note is the lowest - its inversion. If he's calling it Cm♭6, then it won't be spelled with a G♯. G♯ is an augmented 5th. The ♭6 of C is A&flat. As soon as I hear stuff like that that's inaccurate, i ...


7

I don't know the video, but normally one uses only 1 instance of each letter. Also (with exceptions), the best guess at a chord comes from considering the notes as stacked thirds. This would give A♭-C-E♭-G as the chord. This an A♭ major seventh. (The same as the OP G# major seventh.) (A G♯ major seventh would be G♯-B♯-D♯-F♯♯, not as easy to write though.) ...


6

It's an accent that applies to both notes. In the Peters edition (2007, ed. Leslie Howard), bars 748 and 752, a footnote makes this explicit: Liszt's special accent requires a stress on all the notes under the symbol. In recordings you can often hear the accent implemented as an (extremely) momentary ritardando, as well as the usual increase in loudness....


5

Although not applicable to the piano piece in the question (the use of which is in the accepted answer), but to clarify for people that may see a similar mark used in student pieces, who may otherwise be confused: In some instructional method books and corresponding pieces, the mark is used to indicate a half step in a new scale or fingering position. ...


2

You look at the notes in the scale. Whichever of them happens to be E, A, D, G or B, (or an enharmonic equivalent) can potentially be played with an open string, at least from the one octave. And assuming that your guitar is tuned to regular E A D G B E tuning. The C major scale doesn't have any sharps or flats, and its notes are: C, D, E, F, G, A, B From ...


1

Slash notation: There are two kinds of slashes, or hash marks, used to indicate improvised chording or comping. Citation based on Finale (Klemm) (If you want to indicate ad lib comping, but you don’t require a specific rhythm, you can fill the measures with stemless slashes, spaced according to the time signature (four slashes in a measure, for example). ...


0

Debussy's piano music is written for a grand piano. Without the sostenuto pedal (the middle one) the quoted bars can't be played quite as he intended, though you can get close! On the first beat of the second bar the pianist presses the sostenuto pedal. That holds ('sustains') the notes which are already sounding: the low G-D-G, plus the five-note chord E-A-...


2

As the Guest answer said, it's simply a tied note indicating the local meter is 6/4, as the tied quarter notes commonly represent a rhythm that shows the second primary beat in a 6/4 bar. (Note ties used in a similar fashion for that rhythm in the left hand in mm. 14-15 later, as well as a tied half to quarter in m. 6. All of these clearly indicate a 6/4 ...


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