20

Yes, you'll want to play E♭–F–E♭ before the final two sixteenth notes. My personal suggestion is more along the lines of: But some purists will insist on the rhythm of the D–E♭ being precisely as written, and therefore: This is where your own interpretation comes into play. I recommend listening to as many recordings of this opening as you can find; you'll ...


14

This is called a turn. The 'basic' version would be written without the accidentals, and the player would play the first note, then quickly play one tone (note) above, the main note again, a tone below, the main note, and the resolve one the final note. The accidentals clarify exactly which notes to "twiddle" to. The turn can be either directly over a note,...


14

In fact, you can beam rests! I would go with: This is a clear modification of the "correct" beaming of your original example, which would be: Some of the comments below correctly state that beat 3 of my first example is not standard notation. Perhaps I went a bit crazy beaming all the rests, in which case you may prefer the following, more conservative ...


14

There are a couple things I would note. Most Classical music is pre-recording technology, so we don't have any recordings of how it would have been played at the time, which would likely be the way the composer would have intended it. Because of this, we have to rely on the notation alone. The older the piece of music, the less standardized the notation ...


13

Both other answers overlook a crucial point. In Mozart (and contemporaries and earlier composers) trills should generally start on the upper note, which is the case here. However, many professional pianists do not know this and start on the lower note anyway. This is, historically, simply wrong. There are plenty of sources on this, for example CPE Bach’s ...


12

Small ornaments The smaller ornaments indicate an editorial addition. These additions are typically based on alternative sources or common practice, but which cannot be conclusively determined by the source material. Parentheses These are a variant marking for an appoggiatura from above (see #10 in the image below). (SOURCE) This is clarified further by the ...


11

This is called a grace note. Its duration can be stolen from either the note before or after it, depending on the stylistic context. I think the slash is intended to indicate "as fast as possible".


10

The first thing to realize is that notation and performance are different in Baroque, Classical, and Romantic music. The Romantic rules apply to Beethoven and later composers. The small squiggle (two zigs and two zags) means three notes, the first on the note, the second on the note a step higher (the "auxiliary note"), and the third on the note again. On ...


10

There is nothing mysterious here. As you say, if it were slurred that would make it a tie, and that wouldn't make much sense in this setting. It all looks clear to me. Simply play the slashed Eb slightly before the beat and then start the trill on another Eb.


9

According to Bach's father's own Explication concerning the trills and ornaments, we are given a guide on how to interpret the trills. The Expliation was later expanded on by C.P.E. Bach. There is no question that an historically correct interpretation will start the trill on the upper auxiliary note (in this case the A). The ornament does not descent to an ...


9

Yes, the ornament, known as a turn, is executed A-G-F#-G. For reassurance, of the editions on IMSLP that offer explicit notation (see below), all give A-G-F#-G explicitly. The Barry Cooper / ABRSM edition also gives the same notation. Casella von Bülow Schnabel


8

The convention for ornaments is that a sharp or flat will affect only the ornament, and not other notes within the measure. So in your example, any note written in the C space will be played as a C natural - but if there is a second mordent in the same measure, the C in that mordent will also be sharped without needing an additional accidental. This rule ...


8

In Couperin's time, a dot after a note-head didn't always mean to extend the duration by exactly 50%. Here, each dot means to extend the duration by just the right amount so as to make the durations in the top line match the bass.


8

Hindustani (North Indian) Ornaments1 Alankara = Ornaments A major difference between Hindustani and Western ornaments is that Alankara are tied to raga, in the sense that how the ornament is executed and on which notes it is executed are characteristically defined by the raga. Western ornamentation is by contrast more general, the ornament being influenced ...


7

I arrived at two reasons immediately: As part of ornamentation it is a clear indication, that a beginnner may skip the appogiatura without losing essential parts of the piece; informative in fast movements. (Ornamentation often being added later by the score editor is somewhat more arbitrary in any case.) It is also a statement (unfortunately depending on ...


7

There is no rule that says the turn has to go up one whole tone from the note you call the base. It can be a half tone or a whole tone. The turn follows the key signature unless something else is indicated. So in this case what you call the base note is A♯. If you follow the key signature then the next tone up from A♯ is B, so it should be B. And regarding ...


6

When the Mordent sign is used in front of the note it actually indicates a slide. If you can excuse the poor photo of the source material I think it can still be of some worth to you. It says the following... THE SLIDE. This is written as a Mordent sign before a note and consists of the two notes below the principal note taken consecutively, and leading up ...


6

There is a general consensus that the trill should start on the principle note (A#) with finger 4 and consist of 5 total notes, including the trill ending. Beyond that, there is little agreement. There are dissenters in all aspects, especially with regard to fingering. Here is a table reflecting the choices of various editors. Starting ...


6

A little sharp below the turn sign:


6

I think you should definitely find some way to specify it, just so the performer knows exactly what is expected. Here are a few possible solutions, though I don't claim any of them are 100% factually correct with sources to back me up: I've seen editorial footnotes in scores of composers before Bach. If you think a footnote is the best bet, I don't ...


6

Take a look at the first edition: http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/b/b1/IMSLP51972-PMLP01414-Beethoven_-_Piano_Sonata_No.3_(Artaria).pdf Inverted symbol but of course it's not an inverted turn. Now take a look at edition Casella 1919 http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/8/81/IMSLP68708-PMLP01414-Opus_2_no_3.pdf The figure is to be ...


6

That's just a trill, tr. Different engravers over the years have given the symbol various different forms, and that is one in which the "r" is perhaps less obviously an "r," at least to modern eyes.


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