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8

The basic rule is not to write a note which "crosses" the mid point of a bar in 4/4. Either of your bars 3 and 4 are OK, and 3 is usually easier to read. One exception to the "don't cross the mid point" rule is if the whole bar is syncopated, like the last bar in the example below.


6

The 'rule' about not crossing the centre of 4/4 time is an old one, but a good one nevertheless. It makes reading easier - which after all is what writing music out should be about. Personally, i'm happier reading things like this with ties, where it can be seen simply that there's syncopation. However - since the sound of drums generally don't have any or ...


5

Your example was the standard notation for vocal parts up to about 1950. The beams indicate the notes sung to one syllable of the lyrics. You will find almost all "pre-computer-engraving" vocal scores written that way. The slurs in your example show exactly the same thing as the beaming, and were sometimes omitted, except over quarter notes or longer which ...


4

A poetic foot need not have an even number of syllables, and a poetic line need not have an even number of feet. Furthermore, in some styles of poetry, if not most, it is not uncommon to vary the rhythm somewhat by inserting a three-syllable foot in a two-syllable meter or vice versa. A famous example, set many times to music, most famously by Schubert, is ...


3

At least for dances from the Romantic era and backwards, music for different dance types in the same meter and tempo are not quite interchangeable. For example, even though they are both fairly slow dances in triple meter, the polonaise uses an 8th-16th-16th rhythmic pattern more often, emphasizes the first beat more, and often sounds more stately, while the ...


3

The history of hymn tunes is all about evolving musical styles and adapting old material. The Wikipedia page gives a summary for this particular tune. It's original form was... The German Wikipedia page shows that mensural notation in modern notation and then in metered form... The point is that we can't even begin talking about different forms of the ...


3

The F and D notes really ought to have two tails - up and down, as it appears (to me) that although they're written just in the tenor part, they belong in the bass. Either that, or re-write the tenor notes (F and D an octave higher) as dotted crotchets (quarter notes), and the lower F and D with down stems. But as far as playing, the order of notes is clear.


3

Both are correct, but the 3rd bar looks more tidy and natural.


1

As Tim answered, the stem directions are likely incorrect. For how to play it -- on which beat to play which note head -- see how the note heads align with those in other staves. This looks like the left hand part of a piano piece. Align it with the right hand. Look for similar patterns in other bars.


1

Yes, and yes. The beaming follows the old practice, and it merely obscures the beat. Already discussed in Beams in classical vocal music But there's something else going on here too. Look at 'gently' and 'boatman'. Does using an appoggiatura for an accented passing note add useful information? I think it does, both for the singer and for the musician ...


1

These are not two different versions of the same hymn. The only difference is that one note is held longer in places. People in different places hold that note longer, so to keep it in a standard 4/4 time signature, the first note is moved to beat two to make up for the extra beat in the half note (then rest.) I have heard it sung both ways. The pick-up to ...


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