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11

They refer to non-tonal/non-harmonic sounds; be it drum sounds (these sounds don't follow a harmonic structure), or dead notes on a string instrument, or, as is the case in this example, rap (the rapper speaks the words without tuning them to a specific pitch). This is useful for notating rhythm parts that don't really have a pitch. It's used instead of "...


8

You could also have a pickup measure at the start of your piece if that extra beat happens to be the first beat of your song. They look like: Note also that if you do this, convention dictates that the last measure of the piece be shorter by the amount you added to the beginning (but recently, this convention's been on the decline in modern music).


8

The basic rule is not to write a note which "crosses" the mid point of a bar in 4/4. Either of your bars 3 and 4 are OK, and 3 is usually easier to read. One exception to the "don't cross the mid point" rule is if the whole bar is syncopated, like the last bar in the example below.


7

On and off beats really exist on a spectrum, and determining whether beats 2 and 4 are on or off is really a question of tempo. If the music is fast enough, we can start to feel the 4/4 time in (as we say) a large 2, meaning that 1234 starts to sound like 1&2&. In such cases, 2 and 4 are definitely heard as off the beat, with 1 and 3 being on. But ...


7

Go back to playing basic notes - the pentatonic scale will do. Se t the metronome for around 80-90 bpm. Play notes on each beat. So far, so simple! Then play on beats 1,2 3, not 4. Then try beats 1,2 not 3 but 4, all for several bars. There are several different combinations to try, using similar ideas. Then try 1,2,3,4, 1-3- in two bar sequences. The idea ...


7

If you are talking to other musicians about what is or should be played you might say "on the upbeats" "on the off beats" or "on the up strokes". Context is key here as the meaning can easily be confused with weak beats. You could even clarify by saying "the 'ands'" but this could sound a bit amateur so use sparingly.


6

Polyrhythms, especially more complex ones like this, make much more sense if you chart it out. Find the least common multiple. In this case, its 51. List out all numbers between 1 and 51. Circle every 17th number. Square every 3rd number. What you have left is a way to count any given polyrhythm. Obviously the larger your multiple, the harder it is to ...


6

My first thought is do it the way that is most comfortable to you. However, It can't hurt to learn it every way you can think of. Reason being it will help you down the line when some odd rhythm is put in front of you. Practicing it different ways will help you be more versatile if you really work at it or it will allow you to find some weak spots in ...


6

Your example was the standard notation for vocal parts up to about 1950. The beams indicate the notes sung to one syllable of the lyrics. You will find almost all "pre-computer-engraving" vocal scores written that way. The slurs in your example show exactly the same thing as the beaming, and were sometimes omitted, except over quarter notes or longer which ...


6

The 'rule' about not crossing the centre of 4/4 time is an old one, but a good one nevertheless. It makes reading easier - which after all is what writing music out should be about. Personally, i'm happier reading things like this with ties, where it can be seen simply that there's syncopation. However - since the sound of drums generally don't have any or ...


6

By crikey this is broad. You've basically asked "What's the difference between 'white' music & 'black' music?" Because you could write entire books on the subject & still not arrive at any real definition, especially in this day & age when everybody's borrowed from everybody else to such a degree as it's almost impossible to disentangle any more,...


5

The top line in the snap above is the right-hand part of bar 7. The bottom line might help you work out how to count it. I've rewritten the dotted eighth note as a sixteenth note tied to an eighth note. If you took all the ties out it would be the ra-ta-tum-tum rhythm from 'The Little Drummer Boy' Firstly try playing the phrase leaving out the tie marked ...


5

Yes, your markings are correct. Remove the stems-up voice from the RH and all will become clear. A little more horizontal space would have allowed the engraver to make it rather more clear. But once you see the pattern of repeated D# 16ths, it's not too bad.


5

It looks fine to me. It would also fit into 4/4 but the main difference is where the accents fall. Usually, you want the downbeat to be the strongest beat in the measure. Combining the first line into two 4/4 bars would mean that the second beat of your current 2/4 bar would become a downbeat. If that doesn't seem right to you, I would keep it the way you ...


5

Beatmaking stems from the use of a regular acoustic drum kit in rock, pop, and perhaps especially R&B and funk. Early beats that were made with drum machines or samples were usually meant to re-create beats played on actual drum kits. The most commonly used pieces of the drum kit are just as you list: Kick Snare Hi-hat (open and closed) Many of the ...


5

In the early stages it's sometimes difficult to count, especially rests and longer notes. Something needs to be there at the point where you don't actually play a note - either because the last note lasts longer, or there's a rest. Various things can help, whether it's a nod of the head, shrug of the shoulders, tap of the foot, or even a sniff. In other ...


5

If it's called anything, it's called the 'and'. But it isn't really called anything special.


5

If you have a strong enough 4/4 mindset you can impose it on this piece I suppose! But I really think you ARE imposing it. Maybe MY knowledge of how it's notated is affecting my perception. But I think the slurs, to mention just one element, work against your hypothesis. I think the music is intended to depict a relaxed stroll around the exhibition, ...


5

Counting while playing is already the way to go! Be patient and don't give up. It will come. I think what will help you is practicing to identify the big beats in a rhytmically complicated measure. Do it often just with the score, away from the piano. There's no shame in indicating with a small pencil line where every beat falls, for complicated rhythms you ...


5

Music notation conventions have changed, at different times in history. Bach did not give any tempo indication for the prelude and wrote it in common time. Therefore the written "beat" was a quarter note, i.e. every four written notes. In Bach's time, musical tempos were defined relative to the human heart beat, not as MM values (the metronome had not yet ...


5

This is always a tough situation, but it is definitely something pro musicians will have to deal with at some point. A friend of mine once pointed out several instances of the beat getting flipped during some classic jazz recordings. I can't remember them specifically, but the recordings included some of the best jazz musicians ever, like Thelonius Monk and ...


4

Yes - any sequencer program with an Edit window that displays note-on times. Record yourself playing to its click, despair at your inaccuracy! We've all done it. If you want a more musical test, set up a drum track with a suitable groove and play to that. Quirks of the system may cause your recorded notes to have a constant offset from the 'grid'. But ...


4

...I've never seen a baroque piece using triplets... Bach autograph, Wilhelm Friedman Noteboook... Handel, Chaconne HWV 484, var. 12... Corelli, Violin Sonata Op 5, no. 12 La Follia, var. 12... ... not one single time on one particular score, but used several times by many composers... Three composers (pun intended), the triplet aren't singular ...


4

"The blues" is a broad term. You could grab an old acoustic from a garbage heap and put one string on it. Any guitar will do. There is really no such thing as a blues guitar. Blues is a culture, style, and sound. So as long as you learn the riffs and licks and style you will create the blues on your ax. Considering that the electric guitar is more than ...


4

It's indeed clearly a 4/4. The confusing part about the drums is that the second bar is syncopated. The kick drums and snares are played one 8th note after the beat, which is unexpected. The pauses, then, make it more difficult to keep track of the rhythm (if the hi-hat kept on playing straight sixteenths, I bet you wouldn't be confused at all).


4

Good question. I've thought about ways to make my own solos rhythmically more varied for a long time, and so far I've come up with the following tricks: Sing the solo at the same time, singing and playing in unison. Rhythmically, but why not the pitches as well. At least for me, tying my playing with the "speaking part" of my brains makes me play different ...


4

If this feels like 4/4 time with an extra beat tagged on at the end, then I would count each measure as: 1-ee-and-uh-2-ee-and-uh-3-ee-and-uh-4-ee-and-uh-5` If you want the pattern to count up and don't need to worry about accenting a particular beat, I would recommend this: 1-ee-and-uh-IS-ee-and-uh-SEV-ee-and-uh-EN-ee-and-uh-TEEN` 2-ee-and-uh-IS-ee-and-uh-...


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