14

Typically, in traditional classical music, non-harmonic tones like suspensions are not indicated in the Roman numeral analysis. You would simply notate the numeral and inversion for the chord to which you are resolving. Here's an example: In jazz and pop music, on the other hand, you may find the chord analyzed as IVsus or IVsus4, for instance. This is ...


14

The chords you've listed in your table are what we call the diatonic triads of a key. "Diatonic" basically just means "within the key," so the diatonic triads are what are created when we only use the pitches in a key's key signature. (Quick note related to key signatures: your vii° chord will actually be E♯°, not F°, because E♯ is the seventh scale degree ...


13

That's Coltrane changes (before Coltrane actually used them in Giant Steps etc.), where the roots of the tonal centers move in (enharmonic) major thirds (either up or down): [Bb] -> (down M3) [Gb] -> (down M3) [D] -> (up M3) [Gb] Returning to the key of F is not part of the cycle anymore, it's just going back to the original key. This is what the ...


13

The only thing the flat symbolizes is the root is lowered by a half step. So in C, a III would be built off of an E while the bIII would be built off of an Eb. From there, you build the chord based on the type of chord written. For this example, since the bIII is uppercased with no addition symbols it's telling you the chord is major. So the chord would be ...


13

Having looked at many analyzed scores, I find the lower case for minor and diminished and upper case for major and augmented much easier to read. The most common places I found hard to read were in music that uses both major and minor of the same key (tangos come to mind). (As far as I can tell from looking at older books, the use of both cases is an earlier ...


12

I think the B means Barre, and the roman numeral is the position. So B VII would be barre on the 7th fret. I don't know what the 6 means. If you look at bar 37, we see: BVIII6, and this is a chord of C, and in bar 63 we see BII5 for a chord on B and in bar 67 BIII6 for a chord on G. All these other chords confirm my assumption that the B means Barre and ...


12

First let me make this remark: as always when analyzing, know what key you are in and look for accidentals outside the key. If there are no accidentals outside the key then you can't be dealing with a secondary dominant. Now let's look at the chords in the key of C major: ii: D F A V/V: D F# A ii7: D F A C V7/V: D F# A C As you can see the ...


12

That's my answer; neat! This is a contentious issue for musicians. You're right that beat 3 is a i chord in second inversion; it has C–E♭–G, obviously a C-minor chord, and that should be i! But let's imagine that the E♭–G–C on beat 3 didn't exist, and we just had a half note of D–G–B. We'd label that V, right? Well, this notation just shows that the V ...


12

If one is in a major key, then III is a major chord build on scale step 3. An example is in C major, the III is an E major chord, E-G♯-B (in some order.) The symbol ♭III in C major is an E♭ major chord, E♭-G-B♭ (in some order.) If in a minor key, then the III chord is built on a flattened third so in C minor, III is E♭-G-B♭ (in some order). The term ♭III ...


12

As long as you use the two systems with the degree of specificity that you've done in your question, it ultimately won't matter, because they tell you the exact same thing. As you've mentioned, major/augmented chords use uppercase Roman numerals while minor/diminished chords use lowercase. But note that in your system of using uppercase Roman numerals, ...


11

The other chords get Roman numerals based on the key you are in. For example in the key of D major you would have the following Roman numerals map to the following chords: D Em F#m G A Bm C#dim I ii iii IV V vi viio This comes from how chords are built in major keys. When you don't have a key try and figure out what key fits the chords best. ...


11

From what I've read on the history of western harmony (there's a good Cambridge Press book about the subject), these were viewed as temporary key changes. These modulations were driven by chromatic voice leading. Lester's book, "Compositional Theory in the Eighteenth Century" had some examples of such progressions being termed (very short) key ...


10

Hmmm, this is a little off the cuff, but I think it's probably easiest to look at mm. 12-13 (primarily 13) as a viio/ii or V7/ii in the new Bb key. That is to say, the B-nat is part of a secondary leading-tone or secondary dominant chord. I suppose it could just as easily be a viio/iv or V7/iv in the old key, and then you could call the iv a pivot chord like ...


10

The only thing about the distribution of voices that Roman numeral analysis provides is which voice is in the bass. Just some background on the symbols... The Arabic numerals added to Roman numerals are a historical hold over from figured bass and an approach to harmony that was more about counterpoint. The figures told a keyboard accompanist what type of ...


9

I agree, these are somewhat dubious designations, but there's a possible justification for looking at them more or less as analyzed in your example, in increasing order of dubiousness. The first example is actually just a deceptive resolution of the secondary dominant, akin to a primary V7 going to vi. V7/vi in C major is an E7 chord that wants to go to A ...


9

Roman Numeral analysis requires the key of what you are analyzing to make any sense. Based on the key you can handle any basic progression. If you are in A minor, everything you are doing is centered around A so the progression would be i VI V for the progression Am, F, E. When outside of a major key sometimes ♭ and ♯ signs are used to denote ...


9

Just a quick answer: that seems to indicate a secondary dominant ("five-seven of four"). I believe it is more common to show them with a slash, e.g., V7/IV. Check out this question --- What is a secondary dominant chord? --- for further discussion.


9

I recommend trying to clearly show the functional role of each chord with your labels. So for this example, you have two options: VII7–III V7/III–III The first option is not wrong, but it doesn't clearly show what the relationship between the VII chord and the III chord actually is. The V7/III label, however, makes this very clear: here is a dominant of a ...


8

As is often the case for harmonic analysis: context is key. Especially true I feel when looking at postwar popular music, in which harmonic conventions vary a lot between period, genre and composer, and so a "one size fits all" approach to functional analysis is even less reliable than in common practice music. A general principle though is that ...


8

To start off, here are some quotes from The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory: To designate the scale-degree placement of these chords, Vogler introduced roman numeral designations. Although earlier theorists had proposed analogous notations and terminologies for identifying chordal scale degrees, Vogler was the first theorist to use roman ...


8

Where you play the notes - in which ocatve, or even how they split - root in bass and others in r.h., or split them two with each, etc., is very much up to you, as the player. It's called voicing, and as PiedPiper says, when all the notes are as close as possible, it's called 'close position' or 'close voicing'. The opposite being 'open voicing'. It matters ...


8

No, not all three notes of a triad must be present for it to be given a Roman numeral. Common practice requires at least two pitches to be present to recognize it as a triad: the root, so that we know what the root of the chord actually is (!), and the third, so that we know the quality (typically major or minor). This means that the chordal fifth is ...


7

If I'm not mistaken, the way to symbolize this is: IVsus or IVsus4 (or IVsus4). (Usually, when you see a IVsus chord, it refers to a sus4 chord, but not everyone writes it this way).


7

The term for chord connections like this, where each note of the chords changes (usually chromatically, almost always step-wise) one-by-one, is linear harmony. It's quite common in Liszt, Scubert, Schumann, etc. Roman numeral analysis is mostly pointless during linear harmony passages, most analysts will either just label it as linear harmony until the next ...


7

Ok. This is what it means. In your example, BVII6 As all of you have pointed out, B stands for "barre". It can be also a C, which stands for "cejilla" (the Spanish for "barre"). The roman number VII stands for the fret where the barre has to be done. The number 6 refer to the number of strings you have to press with the barre. The reason for this is ...


7

Roman numerals can be used for aspects of instrumental notation, which are for performance, rather than analytical purposes. For instance, Roman numerals are used to denote: positions in classical guitar music (for instance, see this post); which string a note or passage is to be played on in bowed string music. The wikipedia page about Roman Numerals gives ...


7

In some cases, Roman numerals aren't all that helpful, and this piece might be one of them. In my opinion, Section A is best understood by considering two simultaneous actions: The chromatic descent in the bass from E, through E♭ and D, to the tonic D♭. And the constant presence of the tonic D♭ in all four of the chords. The D♭ is obviously the root of D♭, ...


7

Actually, without seeing the preceding measure, there are quite a couple of things that might be going on in your first example (as @replete noted in the comments). D is a non-chord tone and it could be a suspension, if the note D was played on the same voice on the previous measure and help for this one; you could call the chord a 'vi 4-3', because it's ...


7

The quality of the chords given by upper/lower case hints at the mode, major or minor. I ii iii a major chord on the first scale degree, and two minor chords and the second and third degrees fits the pattern of major keys. i iio III minor, diminished, major chord qualities on the first three scale degrees matches the pattern for minor. But some combinations ...


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