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What is this 'degree' symbol on a roman numeral chord?

The little circle means "diminished" - so this is a diminished chord(See: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chord_notation) A diminished chord is a triad with two minor thirds above the root - ...
Alice Heaton's user avatar
14 votes
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Chord exceptions in City of New Orleans

The chords you've listed in your table are what we call the diatonic triads of a key. "Diatonic" basically just means "within the key," so the diatonic triads are what are created when we only use the ...
Richard's user avatar
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13 votes
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Does the flat (b) in bIII flatten all the notes?

The only thing the flat symbolizes is the root is lowered by a half step. So in C, a III would be built off of an E while the bIII would be built off of an Eb. From there, you build the chord based ...
Dom's user avatar
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13 votes

Should I use uppercase or lowercase roman numerals in Jazz harmonic analysis?

Having looked at many analyzed scores, I find the lower case for minor and diminished and upper case for major and augmented much easier to read. The most common places I found hard to read were in ...
ttw's user avatar
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13 votes
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Is it really necessary to learn the Number System in Music?

As a bassist who has played predominantly jazz for decades I can say understanding and being comfortable with the number system is necessary if you want to progress to be an advanced player. Here are ...
John Belzaguy's user avatar
12 votes
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Analyzing an unfamiliar Roman numeral analysis: Cm/G-G notated as V6/4-5/3?

That's my answer; neat! This is a contentious issue for musicians. You're right that beat 3 is a i chord in second inversion; it has C–E♭–G, obviously a C-minor chord, and that should be i! But let'...
Richard's user avatar
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12 votes
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What is the difference between the bIII and III chord in a minor scale?

If one is in a major key, then III is a major chord build on scale step 3. An example is in C major, the III is an E major chord, E-G♯-B (in some order.) The symbol ♭III in C major is an E♭ major ...
ttw's user avatar
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12 votes

Should I use uppercase or lowercase roman numerals in Jazz harmonic analysis?

As long as you use the two systems with the degree of specificity that you've done in your question, it ultimately won't matter, because they tell you the exact same thing. As you've mentioned, major/...
Richard's user avatar
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11 votes
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Before the advent of Roman-numeral analysis, did musicians conceptualize applied/secondary chords as somehow moving towards their temporary tonics?

From what I've read on the history of western harmony (there's a good Cambridge Press book about the subject), these were viewed as temporary key changes. These modulations were driven by chromatic ...
ttw's user avatar
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10 votes

Is it possible to know the exact chord from the roman numerals

The only thing about the distribution of voices that Roman numeral analysis provides is which voice is in the bass. Just some background on the symbols... The Arabic numerals added to Roman numerals ...
Michael Curtis's user avatar
9 votes
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Roman numeral chord notation in minor scale?

Roman Numeral analysis requires the key of what you are analyzing to make any sense. Based on the key you can handle any basic progression. If you are in A minor, everything you are doing is centered ...
Dom's user avatar
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9 votes
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What does this arrow mean in the chord annotations?

Just a quick answer: that seems to indicate a secondary dominant ("five-seven of four"). I believe it is more common to show them with a slash, e.g., V7/IV. Check out this question --- What is a ...
Neal's user avatar
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9 votes
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Roman Numeral Analysis - Tonicization of relative major key in minor key

I recommend trying to clearly show the functional role of each chord with your labels. So for this example, you have two options: VII7–III V7/III–III The first option is not wrong, but it doesn't ...
Richard's user avatar
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8 votes
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How to name a b7 chord

As is often the case for harmonic analysis: context is key. Especially true I feel when looking at postwar popular music, in which harmonic conventions vary a lot between period, genre and composer, ...
Some_Guy's user avatar
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8 votes
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Origin of Roman Numeral Analysis

To start off, here are some quotes from The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory: To designate the scale-degree placement of these chords, Vogler introduced roman numeral designations. ...
Richard's user avatar
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8 votes
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Is it possible to know the exact chord from the roman numerals

Where you play the notes - in which ocatve, or even how they split - root in bass and others in r.h., or split them two with each, etc., is very much up to you, as the player. It's called voicing, and ...
Tim's user avatar
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8 votes

Do incomplete chords get roman numerals in harmonic analysis?

No, not all three notes of a triad must be present for it to be given a Roman numeral. Common practice requires at least two pitches to be present to recognize it as a triad: the root, so that we know ...
Richard's user avatar
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8 votes

Why isn't #i just called #i?

Allowing for the possibility of a circumstance where #i makes sense, it would be the rare exception when applying an analysis in terms of functional harmony. When #i/I does make sense If the goal is ...
Aaron's user avatar
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8 votes
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Roman numeral slash notation meaning and function? (V/iii)

iii in key C major is E minor. The V of that chord is B (or B7). B is non-diatonic, and is called the secondary dominant in that key. It can lead to Em, and often does, although, despite the allusion ...
Tim's user avatar
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8 votes

Why does this Roman numeral chord have a ♯ prefix?

When analyzing a piece in a minor key, the VI chord is presumed to be on the 6 native to that key (signature), while the vii is presumed to be raised. Since the 6 in melodic minor is raised, its triad ...
Aaron's user avatar
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7 votes

What is the roman numeral assigned to an Eb major chord in the key of F major?

It would just be ♭VII in most cases. The flat comes from you lowering the root of the 7th scale degree to make the chord and the upper case (i.e. VII instead of vii) is to signify that the chord is ...
Dom's user avatar
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7 votes
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What is a roman numeral analysis of the chords from Coldplay's "God put a smile upon your face"?

In some cases, Roman numerals aren't all that helpful, and this piece might be one of them. In my opinion, Section A is best understood by considering two simultaneous actions: The chromatic descent ...
Richard's user avatar
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7 votes
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Roman Numeral Treatment of Suspensions

Actually, without seeing the preceding measure, there are quite a couple of things that might be going on in your first example (as @replete noted in the comments). D is a non-chord tone and it could ...
Shevliaskovic's user avatar
7 votes
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Minor Key (and other key?) Roman Numeral Analysis

There is not one absolute standard. But Kostka/Payne's system in Tonal Harmony will allow you to write a unambiguous symbol for any of the four triad types (major, minor, diminished, augmented) on all ...
Michael Curtis's user avatar
7 votes
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Do Roman Numerals for a chord progressions change capitalization when played in a different key than the original?

The quality of the chords given by upper/lower case hints at the mode, major or minor. I ii iii a major chord on the first scale degree, and two minor chords and the second and third degrees fits the ...
Michael Curtis's user avatar
7 votes

What is this lead-sheet chord?

It's definitely a real chord! The Roman numerals indicate the root of the chord, and the Arabic numerals next to it tell us the inversion; we call these latter numbers "figured bass." A &...
Richard's user avatar
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7 votes

Before the advent of Roman-numeral analysis, did musicians conceptualize applied/secondary chords as somehow moving towards their temporary tonics?

Secondary dominants were common in Baroque music, since early days. There was also a different notion of leading tone: they could lead towards a tone by the common leading tone (raising the pitch) or ...
Rodrigo B. Furman's user avatar
7 votes
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Chords as Roman Numerals: how to represent in-between chords?

E is the third scale degree in C, and Eb is a flat three, and if such a chord is playing, we must assume that the third degree is chromatically altered, "flattened". As is the seventh, B --&...
piiperi Reinstate Monica's user avatar

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