11

Of course he didn't, and good on you for spotting such an oversimplification. The simple fact is that it's almost never fully correct to say that one individual ushered in a new historical era. The web of influences is incredibly complex, and anyone saying "this era started here" is likely either simplifying the matter for teaching purposes, or pushing ...


11

By the way you're framing the question, it looks like you're assuming "expression of a topic" is the leading impetus of the Romantic movement. It was certainly part of it, but the Romantic was so much more than that: it dealt with individuality/autobiography, a oneness with Nature, expression of the mystic/religious/supernatural, bucking conventional musical ...


11

What a well-researched and well-sourced question! This is a very common pattern in tonal music that we call a circle-of-fifths (or descending-fifths) sequence. Some would call it a circle-of-fifths progression, and they're correct, but sequence will be a little more specific. Let's break both of these points down: The "circle of fifths" is a pattern where ...


10

You're looking for the Biamonti Catalogue. An online version with MIDI versions of some works is available here.


8

That's not really specific to German: single-voiced vocals are typically "unisex", meaning that they are intended to be sung either by males (one octave lower than the treble clef they are written in) or females (at written pitch). Unless their range is comparatively constrained and thus universal (like typical for congregation singing), they tend ...


7

Some compositions, at least, were gender-specific. Abstract: My research identifies German Lieder composed specifically for female singers. Female-specific songs were determined through textual analysis of the solo works from four influential composers of this era, Franz Schubert (1786–1828), Robert Schumann (1810–1856), Johannes Brahms (1833–1897), and ...


6

Actually, the standard forms from the Classical tradition are still largely in play in the mid-nineteenth and into the twentieth century. Seth Monahan recently published a very well-received book, Mahler's Symphonic Sonatas, that shows how Mahler used the tradition of sonata form in order to create narratives within his works. Sure, these sonata structures ...


5

Yes and no. Many Lieder texts are gender-specific (as Aaron’s answer says) in the sense that they clearly indicate the narrator’s gender — most often by addressing a lover whose gender is specified (in a time/tradition where heteronormativity was assumed); sometimes because they specify the narrator’s profession or social role (in a society where roles were ...


4

Unlike in Bach, Mozart, or even Beethoven's piano works, those written by Chopin, Liszt, and later composers often require the pedal, even when it isn't marked, for reasons like expression from the sustain or large leaps. Same with Liszt's transcriptions of Beethoven's symphonies for solo piano. Take this bit from the Liszt transcription of Beethoven's Fifth ...


4

When Isaac Albéniz found his musical voice, I suppose it could best be described as 'Spanish Nationalist'. The nationalist movement ln music is generally categorised as 'Romantic' I think. This Wiki article postulates a 'Golden Age' of guitar works in the Romantic period. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_guitar_repertoire#Romantic_era


4

While accidentals will often prompt publishers to put courtesy natural signs before the note's pendants in another octave if they occur later in the same bar, this is not actually necessary: unlike the signs of a key signature, accidentals only apply to the exact line they're written in. The 𝄪 does not apply to another F♯ but the one it's actually written ...


4

First off: I assure you all the instruments used for the International Chopin Competition on Period Instruments are in top condition. Many of them are modern copies anyway so those didn’t go through 150 years of wear and tear, and they would only use originals they could restore to their prime. Why there is a little more reverb is a result of long and ...


4

Tutte Le Corde tells you to release the left pedal. The earlier marking Una Corda tells you to press down the left pedal. The left pedal is sometimes called the “soft” pedal. It makes the sound softer by shifting the piano hammers so they only strike one string at a time (hence Una Corda, which is Italian for “one string”). Tutta Le Corde is Italian for “all ...


4

Mixed set of gut and steel (what most soloists now try to emulate with synthetic and a steel E). Gut strings only doesn’t have tone color and power enough to project into a large hall, the common venue where a late romantic symphony was played, specially when you’re dealing with winds and brass a 3 or even a 4, and percussion. After Paganini and Ernst era, ...


4

"Since Liszt's discovery of Petrarch scholars have renumbered the Sonnets, so Liszt's 'Sonetto 47 del Petrarca' is now found as Sonnet 61." https://www.paulrobertspiano.com/index.php/blog/liszts-petrarch-sonnets "I found a few days ago on this forum, some confusion over the number of the Petrarch Sonnet that Liszt set as number 123. The ...


3

The Danse is a Symphonic Poem like others by Saint-Saens, if a rather short one. These compositions don't have to follow traditional forms like "Sonata movement" or "Fugue", although they can. Their point is rather to let the music follow the extramusical narrative regardless of the constraints of strict form. That said, a rondo can have quite a few ...


3

An alternative analysis is to treat the tonic in your specific instance as a passing second-inversion to IV. e.g.


3

My guess is that he harmonized the 4th mode of Bb Major: the Eb lydian scale is a whole-tone tetrachord, a perfect fifth and a major tetrachord which gives us only two alterations Eb and Bb. In this case the vi chord would have a major 6th. Now i'm not sure vi6-I is a common modal cadence in Lydian (I would have thought II-I was) because the #IV degree (a ...


3

Just because the four seasons can be summarized as program music, i.e. containing some extra-musical narrative (found in many eras), is simply not enough, to qualify. There are some composers, which are somewhat on the boundary between two eras, but Vivaldi is none of them. After baroque follows classical, and on classical follows romantic, so the eras are ...


3

You don't need to smuggle B♭, it's in C minor already. The note that needs to be introduced is E natural. If you want something a bit less obvious, try Cm, B♭, B♭m, C7♭9, Fm.


3

One possibility is to go the stereotypical Bach route: prepare a normal cadence in the tonic C minor, but instead of cadencing on C minor, cadence onto a C7 chord. The following example is in C major, but you still get the idea. Hear it here.


3

A very good question... G&S certainly deserve credit for bringing orchestration and original composition to the variety hall and hence musical theatre. However, classical and romantic music are specific forms that have their own generally accepted 'rules' of musical composition, style, performance and instrumentation. Purists will point out that G&S ...


3

You mean that they consider Sullivan's work for the commercial theatre less respectable than Mozart's, Verdi's etc? (We're not talking about Baroque/Classical/Romantic etc. categorisation I imagine?) I don't know. You'll have to ask them. Perhaps because they were English. The music hall song in which the protagonist 'changed his name from Bloggs to ...


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