The X3 means play 3 times, but it is misplaced. It should be at the beginning of the repeated section. The 1.2. means "play these bracketed measures the first two times", and the 3. means "play this bracketed section the third time."
To understand the marking, it must first be made clear to where the repeat sign at the end of m. 16 ...
This is volta. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repeat_sign
This means: Repeat section from 𝄆 (or from the beginning of the piece, if there was no 𝄆) until 𝄇 three times, first two times playing the ending marked as 1.2. (measures 14–16) and the third time ending marked as 3. (measure 17 and the following). The "X3" mark next to the repetition ...
This means that you should play that section three times total. There's presumably another repeat bar earlier in the piece; when you repeat this section, go back to that point and start playing again. (If there is no repeat bar earlier, then go back to the very beginning of the piece.)
The "1.2." notation means that, the first and second times you ...
This is a segno sign. Segno is sign in Italian. It is a point that you are supposed to return to when you encounter D.S. or “dal segno” later in the piece, in this case in the third line from the bottom.
You should also follow any other instructions there. In this case it is “al Coda” (the circle with the cross in the center) where you jump from one coda ...
It's a 'segno' sign. Later in the tune there a marking "D.S. al 𝄌" (short for 'dal segno al coda'). At that point you jump back to the segno sign and play all the way to the coda 𝄌 sign. Then you jump to the coda (also marked with a coda sign).
I have noticed that when I read sheet music, I always have to start by seeing where C would be on the sheet music to orient myself and then go from there. I don't think it is too important to know the name of the note you are playing as long as you are playing the note you want to play
The chorus is the same as the refrain. Like phoog says it is sung between the verse and at the end it can be repeated.
In this example it is really a chorus while the verse seems to be performed by a soloist.
If we didn’t know that it is sung after each verse we could derive it from the first word of the chorus: “THEN ...” ( this implies that that the chorus ...
Based on their placement in the score, they appear to mark phrase boundaries. Note that they come in pairs: e.g., m. 18 has a leftward mark and m. 19 has a rightward mark. Similarly mm. 21-22.
As @OldBrixtonian points out, these marked passages are played like cadenzas, with some rhythmic freedom, which can be heard in this recording (thanks to @OwainEvans):
I've noticed that my mind always wants to make shortcuts when reading music. I rarely ever actually think about, or consciously process, what pitch the notes are in the sheet music.
This is completely normal. It's how minds work. When you see three apples sitting on a table you're more likely to process that as one triangle with an apple at each vertex. ...
You're doing fine. It's like reading words. You don't spell out C-A-T any more, do you? You read 'cat'. It's the same in music.
If I come across something like this:
I might have to stop and work out the letter names. Maybe even pencil them in! But otherwise, it's look-and-play. No-one spells the notes out consciously. It would take far too long!
Playing by luck or supposition is definitely not a good thing, because the piece carries a certain idea together with a certain aesthetic. For instance your ability with Ligeti etudes or Scriabin sonatas on piano will definitely be a strong drawback. Not being able to say if you played something by chance is definitely a drawback.
However, if subconsciously ...
It's very similar to touch typing, where eventually, one doesn't even bring to mind what the letter is one just knows where it lives on the keyboard.
The same with sight reading - although maybe somewhat easier, with fewer letter names to consider!
The big difference is in the execution. Right now, you're just hitting the right notes - well done. But at a ...
It's an "F" clef.
Summary of historic clef signs including bass clef...
...from Stanford, A History of Music
You might want to get away from calling them "bass" or "soprano" etc and use the letter they indicate like "F" clef, "C" clef, etc. because the history starts with literally writing the letter on a ...
To which piano keys does the first note correspond?
When you say "note", I think you mean "chord" (several notes played at once).
We could, with effort, draw an entire piano keyboard on Stack Exchange, indicate middle-C and then tell you how to count up and down to find the right notes. However I believe this would be unproductive. Also, ...
You can come fairly close:
%%score (V1 V2)
[V:V1] A2 A4 y/8 GF
[V:V2] A2 y/8 A2- AAGF
w: joke kid, __ it's a
w: joke kid, _ for what you
The required code segment is
%%score (V1 V2)
[V:V1] A2 A4 y/8 GF
[V:V2] A2 y/8 A2- AAGF
w: joke kid, __ it's a
w: joke kid, _ for what you
I tried using grace-notes to finesse the ...
Varying shapes of different clefs persisted until very recent times. The F-clef was, until as late as the 1980s in some cases (such as hymnals), or in British and French publications, written like this: Old bassclef
But even if we couldn’t consult wikipedia we can derive from the key signature that this must be the F clef and F is on the ...
They have shades of meaning.
The verb rallentare means to slow down. (Rallentare il passo is
to slacken one’s pace.)
The verb ritardare means to delay or to hold up (or defer).
The verb ritenere means to withhold or retain.
I agree with Laurence that riten usually indicates a fairly abrupt slowing-down or holding back. (A ritenuta is a deduction, eg. ...
I can’t base this on any evidence I can point to which I can share. I can only tell you from asking composition professors this a couple times. I think ritardando is just a simple slowing down where as rallentando is a slowing down into the next tempo. Maybe check in a notation software manual. They can be surprisingly helpful in defining the differences in ...
Poco is 'a little'. Rallentando (also abbreviated to rall or rallent) means a gradual slowing down. So does Ritardando (ritard).
There's also Ritenuto, which means a sudden change of tempo. This can be unambiguously unabbreviated to riten.
But beware. You'll see 'rit.' This can be short for either Ritardando or Ritenuto! Sometimes you have to make ...
The answer you seek I believe is here, in section 4.6.3
Just in case it helps anyone else:
This is called a different 'voice'. The origin of this is harmony (chords) originate in people singing together. Chord literally means in accord - with one another in French. Usually the ...
This works on http://www.mandolintab.net/abcconverter.php but not in FiveLineSkink 2.0 Beta, so it might depend on the software you use:
[| A2 A4- GF &\
A2 A2 AAGF|]
The &\ is what allows us to express multiple voices.
It's the bass clef. Standard. Often called the F clef because the two dots are either side of the F note line. It has various incarnations, but it's still the basic bass clef. Whatever strange sign is there, the two dots will tell 'F clef'. So, the two sharps will always be F and C.
Yes, that's a bass clef / F-clef. They've had many different versions in the past, as indicated in the Wikipedia article you linked to. It mentions French and British publications but it looks like Spanish music used it as well.
So the first notes in the first example are D and A, and in the second example they're both B♭.
I think first of all you should get your technique to around grade 3 level so that you are comfortable with most of the stuff you will see on sheet music.
Ensure in particular that you are rhythmically fluent and that you don't stumble and hesitate, it's always better to play the wrong note at the right time than vice-versa.
You will not likely be a terrific ...
Just to add to the other good answers, maybe also think about breaking the habit of looking at your hands and developing a more tactile sense of the keyboard and building a "mental map" of the keyboard. Try playing short drill material - like scale & arpeggio patterns, sequencing short patterns, or cadences - with your eyes closed, in multiple ...
There are three components to becoming a better reader:
Have a solid technique. Your hands must know where to go without thought.
Have a good ear. Believe it or not, your brain's ear knows what is coming next and can prepare your hands for it.
Know music theory. It is the alphabet of music. You should be able to glance at the score and just know what the ...
Take heart! What you're trying to learn is difficult, and takes a lot of time and practice.
One particular difficulty is in finding your place in the score again after you've looked down at your hands. (Note that every pianist looks down at their hands at some stage in learning a piece - the effortlessness you see in the concert hall hides the hundreds of ...
You may also consider looking at other notation systems that require less mental overhead, like how tabs reduce mental computation for guitar players.
Systems for piano include:
As concluded by others, daily practice is essential. I have good experience with sight reading trainers on the smartphone.
I won't mention any particular apps. Just take a look in your app store and try out a few.
Try incorporating short but regular training sessions in your day. E.g. 10 minutes during a commute.
Give it some time and your brain will do its ...
This is an interactive sight reading training software, which doesn't do both hands (it's for all instruments, not specifically piano) but which allows gradual increase in difficulty, notes range, rhythmic elements, etc. You should probably give it a good look and see if it can help you develop better reading skills on both hands individually. Once reading ...
When I was starting out with piano (I actually used a beginner's book, which might be helpful for you too!), I didn't memorize the notes right away. Rather, I learned how the notes are found on the staff for each clef (bass and treble) and literally counted the lines and spaces to find the right note. Even with just playing simple songs I was able to ...
The main techniques are to look ahead and to identify patterns rather than individual notes. As the other answer says, there are no magic shortcuts to developing these skills. However, focusing on certain aspects of the skill can help you acquire it more efficiently.
The second skill is analogous to reading an alphabetic script. In the early days of ...
There are no shortcuts. With enough practice and time, reading sheet music will come more naturally.
If you want more focused practice on note reading, Teoria has an online exercise you can use to practice. It has a bunch of options you can change to your liking (types of notes, clef, etc.).
I have seen (and use) them in my music to signify a legato or soft tongued phrase. Although this is only used by some composers/arrangers for big band/jazz orchestrations (a field where dots, dashes, accents and various other ornaments have different applications over the decades.) Gotta luv those crazy jazz guys! NO RULES!!
If in doubt go by the sound. Listen to the official Coldplay version.
I think this tutorial may resolve it.
Coldplay - Clocks | Guitar Lesson (Tutorial) Chords & Intro
You will see that the guitar is played using D Am etc. in terms of chord shapes. However the guitarist has the capo on the first fret, thus raising the ...
The issue is that the sheet music you have is a half step lower than the Coldplay recording and this tutorial:
In the sheet music you provided the chords are D, Am, Em but the actual chords are Eb, Bbm, Fm. It’s better to think of them as flats instead of sharps by the way, the notes Eb-Bb-G instead of D#-A#-G.
They chose to ...
The first link you provide in your comment is starting D# A# G but your score is not D A G but D A F#.
The score is thus transposed a semi-tone lower than the tutorial, maybe in order to simplify things ;).
Mastering and accepting this basic rudiment is important but of even more importance is learning to recognize, at a glance, the "harmonic implication" of a group of notes. In other words, what is the chord that is suggested by these notes and what is the harmonic function of that chord? Too many otherwise well trained musicians think from note to ...
This F# is what one would call an accidental: it is a sharp (or a flat, or a natural) which is not part of the key signature.
The rule is: when an accidental is printed, it applies until the end of the current bar (and only to the octave where it appears). Meaning your second version is correct.
There are numerous questions about this here, feel free to add ...