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22

It stands for... M.M. Metronome Marking. Formerly "Mälzel Metronome." Named after the Inventor Johann Mälzel who is the person who first manufactured a metronome for widespread use (although he did was not the first person to invent such a device, that honor went to Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel).


7

4/8 at 60 bpm and 4/4 at 120 bpm are two different things. Each measure of music is related to a pattern of stresses. Since the measures of both options you presented have four beats, they would both have essentially the same stress patterns. At 60 bpm, each stress pattern lasts four seconds. At 120 bpm, each stress pattern lasts only two seconds. The ...


7

It wasn't limited to Chopin; the hairpin symbols weren't universally tied to dynamics until the twentieth century. Before then, usage was a little more varied. A good source for this is David Hyun-Su Kim. "The Brahmsian Hairpin." 19th-Century Music 36, no. 1 (2012): 46-57.


7

A metronome mark doesn’t always match the bottom of a time signature, but neither should it be whatever you want. A metronome mark is most properly a number of beats per minute. So the note value used for a metronome mark should be the value taken by a beat, not an arbitrary note value. Normally the bottom of a time signature indicates the beat directly, as ...


7

Generally, the bottom note (of simple time such as 3/2, 2/4, 3/4, 2/2, or 4/4), the bottom note is used to represent the beat. Compound time may be a bit more complex (but the composer ought to indicate what's wanted); times like 6/4 or 6/8 or 12/8 may indicate grouping by triplets. Sometimes the actual notes are used as in "quarter note = 120." ...


7

There are three ways to determine the appropriate tempo of any piece: Through one's own experience with similar pieces (e.g., same composer, style, genre, or time period). By consulting recordings to see how others have played it. By consulting other written editions of the piece. Experience This piece is clearly focused on developing fast finger-work. The ...


7

You should play whatever speed you can with completely (completely, though!) relaxed hands. Except for the base of the finger being played, there should be no more muscular tension than if the hand was just sitting on a desk. When you start to speed up, there's a tendency to "try-hard," which interferes with the passing of the thumb and makes ...


6

There's no definitive answer. It's an Etude, designed to develop and showcase some aspect of piano technique, so I think we can assume it's designed to go at a fair lick! You could look at it as a preparatory exercise to playing 'Flight of the Bumblebee'.


5

If what I have printed below is what you're describing (I'm just a little dubious that it is - please check) it's a 'metric modulation' indicating that the time previously taken by a dotted quarter is to be taken by a quarter i.e. two 8ths in the time previously taken by three. A reduction to 2/3 of the previous tempo. 132 BPM down to 88 BPM. (For ...


5

Seems a reasonable comment. One modification is decoration. Modify EVERY time and it becomes 'baked in'. I don't think there's any deep musical insight required here. It's just a description in plain English.


5

A rhythm, by definition, is a pattern. If that pattern includes regular rubato, then that becomes part of that pattern. So yes, it turns into a feature of that rhythm. Could depend, of course, on how regularly it features.


5

BPM stands for Beats Per Minute, so the note used in the tempo indication should have the duration of one beat. In a simple time signature like 2/4, 3/4, or 4/4, you should use a crotchet note (quarter note), because this is the duration of one beat. But in a compound time signature such as 6/8, or 9/8, or 12/8, a quaver (eight note) is the duration of a ...


5

The ABRSM 2021–2022 Piano Syllabus applies the following scale speeds for each exam grade, with all scales played in eighth-notes.1 Image source (PDF page 16) Initial: quarter-note = 54 Grade 1: quarter-note = 60 Grade 2: quarter-note = 66 Grade 3: quarter-note = 80 Grade 4: quarter-note = 100 Grade 5: half-note = 60 Grade 6: half-note = 72 Grade 7: half-...


4

Besides the source mentioned by TobyRush, there is a very readable and extensive (60+ pages) discussion of this in Chapter 1 of "The Secret Life of Musical Notation" by Roberto Poli (Amadeus Press 2010). Particular attention is given to Chopin, but Beethoven, Schubert, Liszt and others are also covered.


4

Most DAWs have some kind of facility to do this, though the exact name of the feature and way it works can vary. A couple of products have been mentioned in comments - another choice is Ableton Live, in which I believe you would use the 'warp' facility, which uses a number of markers along the timeline of the track as key points to snap to a grid.


4

The piece is indeed by Carulli. It's his "Sonata #3" in A Major from 3 Sonatines pour une Guitare ou Lyre, Op.7. The score (for the complete collection) can be found on IMSLP. The score is marked "Largo", as can be seen in the below screenshot. Regarding the "fast notes", here is another example from Carulli of a similarly ...


3

It isn’t necessary to indicate every single detail for the musicians. As it is the end of the piece I’m sure all intelligent musicians will read this gestura like it is meant by you without additional information: slowing down, communicating with each other. You even don’t need to notate ritenuto, diminuendo, fermatas, tenuto, or rests. All these indications ...


3

The minim in each of the top three parts is written as a crotchet tied to another crotchet. Now your 'riten.' applies to the whole ensemble, and now that they're all slowing down, you might not need the fermate, but it's up to you. If you do, remember the triangle part needs one too. Now that the 'riten.' applies also to the triangle, you should write the ...


3

Upper Strings: Place the fermatas as you have, and add the "riten." I suggest putting it in parentheses and italics to indicate that it's a cue from another part. That will make sense to an experienced performer. If you want to go a step further, you could add explicit cello cues so the upper strings can see exactly what's going on. Cello: Place ...


3

The most usual case is to give the tempo in the units of the bottom of the key signature. For fast tempi it might be given in multiples of that, and for very slow tempi it might be given in a subdivision. For example in 4/4: quarter=120 works well quarter=200 might be better expressed as half=100 quarter=50 might look better as eighth=100 The tempo of a ...


3

Tempo Usually the tempo is given as BPM — beats per minute. Where the tempo indication is shown as: "a note symbol that has the length of a beat, equal-sign, number (BMP)" By definition the BPM is the number of beats per minute. Putting this into an equation: "BPM" = "beats" / "time in minutes" Rearranging the ...


3

The simplest algorithm is: 1. Lay out all of the notated durations (notes and rests) in each voice in a single stream, including any tempo change indications.1 2. Let qi=0 = the starting basic duration. 3. Go to the first notation. 4. Repeat { 5. If there's a new tempo, adjust qi proportionally. 6. If the current notation is a fraction of the current ...


3

"The Break" (Wikipedia) is the moment of silence -- or "openness" -- following the buildup and before the Drop (see below) Breaks are found in a wide variety of music. In jazz, they're often used between the end of the main melody and the beginning of a solo -- a moment for the soloist to show off before the rhythm section re-enters. &...


3

I can't tell you whether Carulli really wrote it. However, I think that you're going for something you can't ever reach. The main problem is that in Carulli's time and even long after that, there just wouldn't be any metronome marks in the music. (And even at the end of the 19th century, I think many composers just weren't using them.) For Carulli, just ...


3

In the first measure the notes (vertically are): C-C-F-A-C then B-B-F-G-C, resolving to C-C-E-G-C. This middle "passing" chord looks like G7add11/B. Coexistence of major third (B) and perfect fourth (C) is something to be used with much care. A simple solution would be to raise the soprano melody to D on the last beat of the first measure. ...


3

Even though you already accepted an answer I’d like to add there is no right or wrong way to notate this as long as you get the desired result when the music is being read. It is your piece so you decide how you feel it and what the meter should be. I believe you made the right call in writing it in 3/4 time, it seems like a frantic waltz to me and 3/4 time ...


2

As long as your playing is completely clean I'd keep on going until you reach your limit. Exercises like Hanon will help your overall dexterity especially in classical pieces. But the main thing is to make sure that you are playing extremely and completely clean. No overlapping notes, no wrong notes at all. Otherwise this will not help at all.


2

To determine if you have reasons to practice your Hanon exercises faster than the recommended tempo markings, it is helpful to consider your individual goals, and which aspects of your skills that you're trying to improve during a given practice session. Depending on your skill level, you might find that you could even double the recommended tempo, although ...


2

Every mechanical metronome I have owned - the first one in the 50s - was imprecise. I had a Franz pyramid style, a Wittner Taktell, and Mini Taktell. I was a wee bit nerdy and checked them with the second hand on my watch and developed a way of adjusting them. I even lined up identical models in a music store and set them in motion, amazed at how wildly they ...


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