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2 votes

Did Chopin use hairpins (adjacent crescendo and decrescendo) to indicate rubato rather than dynamics?

In addition to the fine answers already given, you might listen to what Seymour Bernstein has to say about "double hairpins" in Romantic music. He makes a very persuasive case that they are ...
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2 votes

Tempo for Rezitativ

The defining characteristic of a recitativo is mimicking the mode of speech. Although this can not be applied exactly in these cases, as we have melismatic elongations, the tempo should be chosen so ...
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1 vote

Tempo for Rezitativ

I would argue that there is no "proper" tempo for the Beethoven, at least not that we can surmise now, because the individual who would know died almost two-hundred years ago. In light of no ...
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