46

Is it possible there is a "dim" around m. 25 or so? Often a composer (or in this case, an editor) will request that an expression marking takes place over a span of time instead of instantaneously. One such standard marking is "diminuendo," which instructs the performer to gradually get softer. It sounds like the "inuendo" is simply the latter portion of a ...


34

That is a duplet. It works like a triplet, but instead of playing three notes in the time of two, you play these two in the time of three. Another way to write this is by using dotted eights. But for example in 6/8 time, it's preferred to use duplets. It helps signifying how foreign the rhythm is in relation to the time signature you're in.


30

Within the context of a march, this final pitch/chord is often called a stinger; it's used to punctuate the end of the entire piece. According to this Wikipedia entry: The last measure of the march sometimes contains a stinger, a I chord played in unison on the upbeat after a quarter rest. Most, but not all, marches carry a stinger. "Semper Fidelis" is a ...


28

The term "harmony" itself is what you are looking for. Being able to sing in harmony (2 or more different voices) with someone however doesn't require any more skills or theory than singing alone or in unison (same notes, only one voice) because everyone learns "his notes" as he would do singing alone. The only thing I could think of is having a good ear, ...


25

Singing together but different notes is singing in harmony. Singing the same notes would be singing in unison.


19

The dotted minim/half in the lower stave shows that 6 quavers/eights fit. So the "2" means "2 in the time of 3". It indicates an irregular group of notes; usually a higher number of notes have to be played in the time of a lower number, and thus quicker than notated; here we have the less usual situation where a lower number (2) have to be played in the time ...


17

There’s not much (if any) difference in the tempo they imply, but there’s a difference in character. Literally, con brio means with spirit, while con fuoco means with fire. Regarding tempo, both are traditionally taken to mean that it should be a little faster than it otherwise would be — allegro con brio/fuoco a bit faster than a typical allegro, and ...


16

Yes, "pedal point" is the accurate term for it! If you're looking for another term, a pedal point can be understood as a particular type of ostinato, or repeating musical figure. Often an ostinato is a melodic and/or rhythmic idea, but I have heard musicians refer to a static pedal as a type of ostinato, as well.


12

It seems to me that the definition of timbre that uses "overtones" to describe qualitative differences between sounds of the same frequency and amplitude does not take into account the shape of the waveform. The shape of the waveform is different because of the differences in the levels of the overtones. Or, to put it another way - the shape of the ...


11

What a well-researched and well-sourced question! This is a very common pattern in tonal music that we call a circle-of-fifths (or descending-fifths) sequence. Some would call it a circle-of-fifths progression, and they're correct, but sequence will be a little more specific. Let's break both of these points down: The "circle of fifths" is a pattern where ...


11

In musical theater this is often called a "button" (particularly if it's a low note).


10

Closely related keys are keys that have at most one accidental difference. So the set of notes inside the key are almost identical (or identical in the case of relative major/minor keys). You can get to any key from any other key, but some key require less perpetration and have easily ways to convincingly transition. Parallel major/minor keys are some of ...


10

No. "Staccato" is a more general term than "stab." A stab usually describes an accented note surrounded by rests. Stabs are often used in film scores to add drama and highlight individual actions. An example would be the famous show scene from the film "Psycho." Each stab of the knife is accompanied by an orchestral stab. (This example is unique because it ...


10

Word by word: con - with più - more fuoco - fire possibile - possible In Italian, "possibile" stuck on the end of a phrase means "as much [preceding thing] as possible". So translated as a phrase: "With as much fire as possible"


10

See also: Definition of Functional Harmony In functional harmony, simultaneous notes are interpreted as chords and the analysis is based around how the chords relate to the overall key and the preceding and following chords. The relationship any one chord has in the context around it (i.e., the key and other chords) is called the chord's function. Another ...


10

Sometimes it's easiest to see concrete musical examples. The author's claim here is that a scale is only the stepwise ordering (hence "ladder") like that shown in the following: Contrast this with the following Debussy excerpt: In this latter excerpt, there is no stepwise pattern, so the author is making the claim that it's incorrect for us to say "this ...


10

According to this resource with lists of scale/mode names, some terms for this scale (with semitone groupings 2 1 3 1 2 1 2) include: Mela Hemavati, Raga Desisimharavam, Maqam Nakriz, Tunisian, Dorian sharp 4, Misheberekh: Jewish, Nigriz, Pimenikos, Souzinak (Peiraiotikos Minor): Greece, Ukrainian Minor, Kaffa, Gnossiennes This page suggests the name ...


9

It sounds like a chromatic mediant because C and E major are themselves chromatic mediants. You've just added in a passing chord between them. We could call this "planing," which is just moving a particular chord shape or type up and down by parallel motion. Planing often stays within a key (it's thus called "tonal planing"), meaning that the chord ...


9

As others have mentioned, the word diatonic comes from ancient Greek music theory and literally means "through [whole] tones." Ancient Greek music tuned its scales using intervals of perfect fourths called tetrachords. A diatonic tetrachord was one that was tuned with two whole tones on the top, and the remainder left on the bottom (roughly a semitone), ...


9

I think when an instrument doesn't have a clear pitch, the musician's go-to word is 'unpitched', rather than 'noise'. Noise in a musical context often refers to something extraneous or unwanted - e.g. when talking about fret noise, or a noisy amp. However, you are quite right that the sound of many drums is essentially very like 'enveloped noise' - and from ...


8

Well, "easy to get to" isn't exactly a very precise term musically. For a good example, note that from A major, B♭ major is almost as unrelated as it gets. However, lots of songs will just shift up a half-step to get to B♭ major. I suppose the answer is that ultimately, "easy to get to" is completely independent of "related". How related a key is is a good ...


8

The issue here is to define "closely related" and "easy to get to". Here is my take on those phrases: Closely related: Two keys are closely related when they share similar key signatures. For example, compared to C major: A minor has the same key signature (no sharps/flats) F major has only one extra flat G major has only one extra sharp Easy to get to: ...


8

The three terms may refer to the same note in a piece but they do not really mean the same thing. Chromatic refers to out-of-scale half-step movement. For example F to F# in the key of C or to notes that are not within that scale. Chromatic may refer to several notes in a row, C-C#-D-D#-E for example. Non-diatonic generally refers to notes not in a given ...


8

No. A Stab chord may well be staccato. It's not going to be a long note, but it might have a measured length. But its main characteristic is sudden impact. Conversely, staccato notes very often aren't 'stabs'. The two words don't mean the same thing.


8

"Function" means "role" or "responsibility"; it's closer to the ordinary meaning, different from the specialized math term which means "mapping between two sets". Western music theory works by identifying and classifying certain recurring patterns in music, such as certain chord cadences. When we say that some chord has a function, we are stating (the ...


8

In my answers here I tend to use home note if I want to avoid any implications as to what kind of music I'm talking about. It sounds a bit childish and not very technical, but perhaps that is why it doesn't seem to have any unwanted implications about the type of music. I don't personally assume much about the type of music if I read 'tonic' or 'tonal ...


7

If you are talking to other musicians about what is or should be played you might say "on the upbeats" "on the off beats" or "on the up strokes". Context is key here as the meaning can easily be confused with weak beats. You could even clarify by saying "the 'ands'" but this could sound a bit amateur so use sparingly.


7

In a more tonal context, the chords C, D, and E can be interpreted as ♭VI-♭VII-I of E major (with substantial borrowing from the tonic minor). This interpretation can be questioned if the next chord is, say, an F major chord.


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