I second @Richard's comment that it's a poor definition. Here is some evidence from other textbooks than AP Barron's.
In Steven G. Laitz's The Complete Musician (which uses the "phrase model" mentioned by @Richard), retrogression is defined as follows:
a backward motion [such as] from D to PD [dominant to predominant] is called a retrogression.1
Interesting. I think the problem lies in a pretty poor definition.
As you've said, there are all kinds of ways to understand "intensity," so it's not hard to come up with examples that seem to defy the definition.
It seems that they mean "intensity" as something like "tendency to resolve towards tonic," but presumably the tonic ...
I was wondering the same thing a while ago. So I am adding some recommendations for people searching this type of music
-Steve Reich- He does various types of "experimental, minimal" music, but anything titled "Drumming" is percussion only
-John Cage Percussion works
-Xenakis- Percussion works
Short answer: if you're just asking about chords, they're typically thought of as stacked thirds, which means you skip a letter for each note. So a chord starting on B will always contain some note named D and F (or D#, F#, etc.).
(Assuming we're talking about standard triads in the European classical tradition here.)
Rather than asking "when is a note sharp or flat" the question is more like "how to choose between enharmonic equivalent choises?"
For instance we are playing a B, is the third note of the chord a Eb or and D#? If we play Bm is the fifth a Gb or a F#?
For that particular choice of enharmonic equivalents the thing to understand is those ...
You are dealing with the issue of enharmonic tones in the 12TET tuning system versus the standard naming convention in music.
The Major scale in any key will have the following pattern of steps:
(W - W - H) - W - (W - W - H)
W = whole step, H = half step. There are 8 notes including the octave, 7 intervals. The parenthesis separate Tetrachords. The Maj ...
For the particulars of music, these "non-lexical vocables," that is, mouth noises that have a purpose but aren't words.
Of course, musicians don't call them that. They call them by the particular sound or affect they are going for. Go to a MIDI workstation and look for the voice-like settings; you will find "aahs" and "oohs." I'...
This is called vocalise (vo - ka - lees)
a singing exercise using individual syllables or vowel sounds to develop flexibility and control of pitch and tone.
a vocal passage consisting of a melody without words.
(From Oxford Languages via Google search)
A particularly famous such piece is titled, appropriate enough, "Vocalise", by Rachmaninoff.
"The Break" (Wikipedia) is the moment of silence -- or "openness" -- following the buildup and before the Drop (see below)
Breaks are found in a wide variety of music. In jazz, they're often used between the end of the main melody and the beginning of a solo -- a moment for the soloist to show off before the rhythm section re-enters. &...
It seems there are two ways of thinking about this.
chords are arbitrary intervals above a root
chords are the diatonic intervals above a root
It isn't purely one or the other, but I think the primary foundation is diatonic with some chromatic modification.
Rather than a diminished triad being arbitrarily a minor third and diminished fifth above a root, it'...
The first word that came to mind is simply technique.
I know that can include lots of other things beside pitch, but fingering technique or manual technique seems straight forward for what you are hinting at.
FWIW, it's not entirely clear what your after. You specified pitch and implied hand, manual technique. Does that mean voice is excluded? Hand in a horn ...
In my edition of Harriet Cohen's transcription of Bach's 'Ertödt uns durch dein' Gute' the phrase 'meno' appears regularly, on its own. I think it means 'less' of the previous crescendos, Fortes etc. in the previous passages i.e. a return to normal tempo and loudness.
I can't really see that it necessarily has anything to do with volume or intensity, but solely the intention of the composer. The word 'climax' suggests an end, the word 'crescendo' describes the climb - perhaps we start a new thing here and start calling it 'parte migliore' - literally : the best bit!
Only use the "And" count in the measure where you need it, it'll be tiering if you do otherwise.
You'll be counting 1-2-3-4 most of the time, then use 1-2-3-4-an or 1-2-an-3-4 whenever needed.
In time, rythms like this will become natural, so you don't need to do this anymore
There is no right or wrong way. If counting 1 and etc helps then do it. You're going to collect a big tool box of stuff like this and you just take out the tools as you need them. Some of those tools you grow out of. Some of them you carry everywhere you go.
You make the shortest note value one and then go up. Quaver would be one count, crotchets two, minims four, semi-breves eight. Always make the shortest note value equal to one and then make the divisions make sense upwards. Start slowly and then start counting faster as you get the hang of it.
Playing a presto piece, andante, but in time, is less of a fault, ...
Because this song has simple rhythms and there are only two eighth notes in the entire song there is no need to count the “and” for the entire song but there is nothing wrong with counting all the “ands” if it makes you more comfortable and helps you play the song correctly. Your idea of just counting the “and” for bar 13 is a good one. The rhythm in that ...
In this song, counting 1 2 3 4 in each bar will work just fine. You will reach a stage when you won't even need to count that, you'll just feel it.
On the bar in question, most would count 1 2 3 4&, obviously the 1 2 3 4 will remain at the same pulse as they did in all the other bars. Don't see the need for all the & counts, but if it helps, there's ...
Call and response or antiphony means some kind of trading of musical statements back and forth between players or ensembles.
But when you mention repetition of lyrics you probably should also know the term refrain which is a stanza or line of poetry (lyrics) repeated, like the title in the song The Times They Are A-Changin.
Call and response in most cases ...