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17

WARNING: This got a bit out of control. Please don't be intimidated by the diagrams and the wall of text. Also please note that in the following (and in the music, generally) the word "modulation" means just a change of key. Obviously, these modulations are the most common ones. However, you can modulate from any key to any other key without much hassle. ...


17

How do I understand the mixture of the major and minor blues scales in an applicable way? The short answer is that the mixing of major and minor tonalities is the essence of blues. Many people draw a distinction between "major" and "minor" blues scales, where in C the major blues scale is A C D E♭ E G and the minor blues scale is C E♭ F G♭ G ...


13

Given that it happens in all voices and all notes, it seems pretty clear, that a tie is intended here. Since the desired note length exceeds one bar and a decrescendo is intended thoughout, this is the obvious notation for it. The fermata on the last rest of course relates on a short wait to the next of the Enigma variations and so contrasts with an attacca....


13

Let's just be clear that there is always more theory you could possibly learn, if you wanted to. (That's probably true of almost all fields of study.) An intro book is generally meant to be some sort of overview of many major ideas in music theory, but there are entire graduate courses offered regularly in music theory that it's likely your intro book ...


11

When the writer wants the music played with separated notes, he'll write staccato marks. Otherwise, the expected way is to 'join up' the notes, rather like we speak with words that follow each other without breaks in between. That's 'slurred'. On some instruments it's possible to leave no gap at all between notes, on piano, each succeeding note will have to ...


8

I think the source of your confusion is the notion of "switching" between major and minor, and the resulting question of when to switch. I would suggest to view things differently, i.e., not to think in terms of "switching" between major and minor. If we consider a blues based on dominant chords - so we're not talking about the minor blues here, which doesn'...


8

We call these rotations (or modes) of a scale. We can rotate any scale such that any member of that scale can be a tonic. The most common rotations are the seven diatonic church modes (see also this question), where we rotate the major scale to begin on each of its seven pitches. But you can rotate every scale out there, and there's likely a name for it. ...


7

Take it with a grain of salt. Any resources described as easy, basic, for dummies, in 24 hours etc. will - by their nature - oversimplify and generalize, skip any subtleties. Often they will also be plain wrong - due to their economics. Scores are a form of notation meant for humans, not for machines. Which is why we still don't have a computer program that ...


7

I'm not sure I'd call the interpretation you quote "programmatic" exactly. In fact, this sort of characterization might in fact be sort of the essence of absolute music. As you likely know if you've been reading about this, Brahms was a friend of Hanslick -- the music critic and sort-of philosopher -- who famously characterized music as "tonally moving ...


6

In the example you give, it's a tie. Period. There's a thing called 'portato'. Sustained but articulated. On a violin, the bow stays on the string but each note is given a 'push' (for want of a better term). Wind instruments can emulate this. It even gets written for piano, where it indicates a musical intention rather than a specific technique.


6

I think you can try to outline the chord with your humming like a walking bass. Like for a bar of C you could humm C - E - G - E. Thats what a walking bass is about: 'outlining the chords'. If the chords change to fast for you to outline the full chords, you can try to omit some chord notes (humm only root/fifth or thrid/seventh)


6

I have no idea as for the breath marks, but for the ritardando, it seems that other instruments are still playing (I see some notes right at the top of the second image, probably a trombone), and the ritardando would apply to everyone. Your question would then reduce to "why is the ritardando so weirdly placed". And about that, I'm not sure, but in the ...


6

As per my answer here, I feel that the essence of melodic blues playing is to move beyond the idea of a fixed set of notes, and embrace the fact that in certain parts of the octave, ranges of pitch, rather than only certain fixed pitches, are available. I also think a lot of the writing in educational resources about "major blues" and "minor blues" is ...


6

There are seven of them. They're called modes. They use exactly the same notes as the 'standard major scale', but are rooted on each of the scale notes. And, there are many tunes which use them. Let's take C major. CDEFGAB. As it stands, it's the C major scale. But if we reconfigure that abd go from , say D to D, it beecomes D Dorian. the root is now D, ...


6

With irregular timings, there's two ways (at least!) to write them out, so they're easily playable. One is to work out where the pattern repeats, and make that length one bar. So with something like 123 123 12, it's pretty straightforward to call it 8, if that pattern continues. If it doesn't, it's hardly a pattern! The other way is to write out (using my ...


6

I can't speak to Kanye himself, but I would say a lot of his stuff is "by ear" which he has refined over many years of listening and creating. Some of the stuff he does might fit those categories, but he might not be doing it on purpose. This probably doesn't help you too much, but it does imply that time spent practising and honing your craft will make you ...


6

A pattern is anything whose form repeats. It's hard to talk about nearly anthing in music without a pattern being involved. Meter itself is a pattern, so if you are dealing with metered music - which is a lot of music - it's patterned. A more obvious example is a harmonic pattern. In pop music the chords I V vi IV is a common pattern repeated over and over ...


5

This is my understanding of the evolution of scales in Western music. I don't have a set of resources for this, as it's my own understanding of what I have read, tutorials I've watched, and conversations with other musicians. AFAIK, what is common in different cultures is the octave: fundamental interval, 2x frequency, and it sounds as "the same note" to ...


5

I'll just provide some historical context to this question, particularly why the "dominant" note first became prominent in scales. It has to do somewhat with the idea of a "halfway point," but it's a bit more involved. Let's go back to ancient Greece and the Pythagoreans. They loved math, and the created the mathematics of proportions partly to create ...


5

I wouldn't say this is a "rule" so much as a guideline for the most common modulations. Most theory textbooks have something called "closely-related keys" or a similar term. They generally include (1) the relative major/minor, (2) keys within one sharp or flat (including their relative majors/minors), and (3) the parallel major or minor. That's the same ...


5

For the breath marks, redundancy is useful. They can remind players not to over-hold the notes. They may also indicate to the conductor a tiny break between the end of the winds' notes and the strings' entry.


5

The last chord shows the notes: G, A, E, C#. If we rearrange these into a stack of thirds, we get: A, C#, E, G. This is a dominant seventh chord: A7. But, as the note G is in the bass it is: A7/G. Within a key of D minor, this is represented in roman numeral notation (with the third inversion being shown with a little d) as: V7d. In figured bass, ...


5

The (sort of) generally known major blues scale in key C consists of C, D, E♭,E, G, A, and minor blues scale in key Cm consists of C, E♭, F, G&flat, G, B♭. So, put another way, the notes NOT included are:C♯, G♯ and B! So, if you like, there are three avoid notes involved in blues on C. Given that the other two main chords used ...


5

Making Sense of Blues Soloing; differentiating major/minor pentatonics A. Major: The major blues-melody contains major 3rds but also minor 3rds (and diminished 5ths, minor 7ths: the blue notes, which fit quite well with the tones of the parallel key) The bass and the chords are major chords (the blue notes are chromatic approaches or bent ...


5

It sounds like you're beginning to come to terms with the language and building blocks of Common Practice music. (That's not supposed to be condescending - those of us who have been at it for 50 years are still learning!) Now what came next? Well, Common Practice kept going, and still does, it's the basis of a lot of today's music. Some modernists ...


5

What you need to know depends on what you want to do. Much of the serial and class set stuff is not closely related to common practice or jazz or pop or Latin or country composition and performance. If you are just composing for yourself or something like that, you many not need to look at some the "newer" (if I many say newer about century-old techniques) ...


5

First, there are not the rules of classical music. Different people have put forth different rules. I would also rather think of these rules as strong suggestions instead of invariable laws. Therefore, if you would use formal language theory to create a classical music parser, you will most likely fail to apply that parser to all but a tiny fraction of ...


4

Tell me with a straight face that the slurs connecting notes of equal pitch are to be played as ties in this excerpt from the Chaconne in Bach's Partita #2 for Solo Violin. Note that this is played across several strings and the string distribution is indicated by stems pointing in different directions (there are 3 groups of 4 16th notes each per measure). ...


4

So far as I'm concerned, the one and only difference between a tie and a slur is the absence or presence of pitch change. After all, a slur instructs you to effectively make the pitch transition in a way that the only thing that takes place is such transition. Because of this, there is no need to make any additional distinction in notation, as the two are ...


4

If it connects two same notes, it’s probably a tie. But as with almost any general rule, there are (rare) counterexamples. Specifically, there are instances where it looks like a tie but the notes are to be played separate (first picture below). Also, there are instances (like in a modulation) in which one might tie two notes with different letter names, ...


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