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26

No, and for at least three reasons: Assuming "chord" to be a tonal entity, we can explain anything as having alterations, omissions, and extensions. With add11, ♭13, no5, etc., we can make sense of any combination of tones. We can understand harmonies as combinations of chords; such polychords allow any and all possibilities. We have systems of ...


17

(Note: this answer was given before the word "beginner" was edited into the question.) Given a pitch, that pitch is a member of every major scale whose tonic is in the original pitch's Phrygian scale. In other words, C is a member of every major scale whose tonic is in the C-Phrygian scale: C–D♭–E♭–F–G–A♭–B♭. Given a pitch, that ...


13

Serialism means that musical material is derived from a series (hence "serial") of said musical material; this series is also commonly called a row. In early serialism, composers used the serial concept to determine the pitch content of the work. Most famously, the composers of the "Second Viennese School" (Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern) were proponents of ...


13

If it really IS a passing note, 'sharpen it going up, flatten it going down' is a good guideline. This has nothing to do with the key signature. A and B below involve a different set of decisions than C and D.


12

You could make chords out of blue notes, but why would you? In general the blues scale(s) is only applied in certain circumstances: unsurprisingly, in blues music. The best answer to this kind of question, in my opinion, is to observe blues music to determine blues' chords. You certainly could write blues music with chords like the ones you listed above, ...


10

Here's another way to view it which might help. Imagine that the music is being by four instruments or voices which can only play one note at a time. Maybe a string quartet or four singers (SATB). Let's imagine a string quartet: violin 1, violin 2, viola, and cello. Each has a part with just one line of your music. Violin 1 has the tune: the top line ...


10

If you want a method that is useful to beginners and that doesn't require additional memorization, I suggest mirroring the way the major and minor scales are constructed, which I assume a beginner will have learnt. Iterate over the whole/half tone steps of the major and minor scale, starting from the note that the keys should contain, but go down in pitch ...


10

You write an augmented 6th chord on the flattened supertonic by applying the same Italian/French/German formula to the flattened supertonic as the conventional Italian/French/German Augmented 6ths do to the flattened submediant. For example, in C Minor, the German Augmented 6th on the flattened supertonic is D♭ - F - A♭ - B, while the regular old ...


9

It really depends on your harmonic structure. It depends firstly on the scale you are in and then what you are trying to do. When you have sharps in the key signature, you'll most likely use sharps as accidentals. You'll choose your accidental depending on where you want to move afterwards. The case usually is sharp when you move up, flat when you move ...


9

You can't just transpose a minor key into a major key, because a minor scale has a different structure than a major scale. Natural minor scale in steps: whole, half, whole, whole, half, whole, whole Major scale in steps: whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half Because you've talked about cents... 100 cents are equal to one semitone. So you could ...


8

It's in 3/4, and those notes on the treble clef with the tails going down are held for each full bar - all three beats (dotted minims). And because they're also tied to the same notes in the next bar, they get held on for another three beats - six in all. So while you hold those keys down with thumb and index or middle finger, the other fingers of r.h. are ...


8

It is important to note that Schoenberg didn't invent twelve-tone serial music specifically to get away from tonality or functional harmony. He had already been writing atonal music for more than a decade without using any kind of serialism. The problem he was trying to solve was that he struggled to give his atonal music unity, and he hoped to achieve that ...


8

Playing D major over Gmaj7 creates the sound of the Lydian mode. These days, most jazz players prefer to use Lydian instead over the major scale (Ionian) - it's part of the sound of jazz since about the 1970s. The only difference between the major scale and the Lydian mode is that major has a natural 4, while Lydian has a #4. This #4 (also a #11) is ...


8

You could transpose the G minor sample to A minor, which is the relative minor of C Major, which means that it uses the same notes as C Major and the sample won't clash (too much) with other elements in C Major. You'll have to judge whether the combination of A minor and C Major elements in the track sounds good or not on a case by case basis. That would ...


7

Yes, you generally double the 3rd of the chord. It's the chord note that is easier to resolve. Let's take this example in C major, a simple I bii V I: You can see that both the neapolitan chord and V use the note D (flat in the first chord, natural in the second one). This is usually considered a bad harmonic relationship (in two chords played next to each ...


7

Does a scale have more than seven chords? Yes, any scale of at least 4 or 5 notes (depending on whether you're defining a chord as having at least 2, or at least 3, notes) can generate more than 7 chords. Should one take just 3 random notes from a scale and call each a chord? Depending on how you are defining 'chord', you can take any group of 2/3 or ...


7

This may help. https://www.mathsisfun.com/combinatorics/combinations-permutations-calculator.html I don't know this math so a calculator in English helps me! Types to choose from? 7 Number Chosen? 3 Is Order important? No Is Repetition allowed? No Combinations without repetition (n=7, r=3) Using Items: a,b,c,d,e,f,g List has 35 entries. abc abd abe abf ...


7

You are correct that resolving the German 6th to a V results to parallel fifths (Ab + Eb -> G + D). This is one of the rare times where the parallel fifths are allowed. People refer to these specific parallel fifths as Mozart fifths. They call them as such because Mozart did this quite often. Wikipedia provides some examples from his works and this one from ...


7

Adding to Shev's answer, it also ought to reflect the harmonic structure of what chord is being represented. Although this is often ignored to make things easier to read. E.g. going from C>F, using C+ as the harmony, the G♯/A♭ should be the former, as the G has been sharpened; If going from F>C through Fm, the G♯/A♭ ought to be A♭, ...


6

(For simplicity's sake, this answer ignores the B held in the bass on beat 2.) Remember that there are three parts to a suspension. A suspended tone must first be prepared as a consonance. It is then suspended as a dissonance, and then it resolves to a consonance. These three parts of the suspension are labelled as P, S, and R below: The preparation is, ...


6

Typically the German augmented-sixth chord resolves to a cadential six-four before resolving to the root-position dominant chord. Since the cadential six-four has scale-degree 3, there's no possibility of having these parallel perfect fifths between scale-degrees 3/6 and 2/5. The Italian and French augmented-sixth chords don't have scale-degree 3 either, so ...


6

There are almost 10 million distinct possible 12-tone rows, and essentially infinitely many different ways of using them. I could carefully construct a row so that it uses only a small number of different intervals, or so that it contains multiple instances of a particular harmony or motive, or so that is uses as many different intervals as possible, or I ...


5

The names of the notes depend not on their length, but on their position in the measure. The six eighth notes per measure are named: du da di du da di ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ No matter how long a note is, it gets the name of the position where it starts; e.g. a note which starts on the third eighth note would be a "di": du da di du da di ...


5

In general, these notes with the stems facing the other direction indicated that it's a >second voice< If you have any notation program, just look up how you can change a voice from voice 1 to voice two. This example above is what you will get. It basically just means, that you have to see both voices as an independent (melody) line. Sometimes you're ...


5

We may miss some details depending on the particular musical example, but in general these indications are telling you two things: the meter and the tempo. In 4 quarter = 126 This is saying that the meter is "in 4"; in other words, you should conceptualize each measure as having four beats. Furthermore, the quarter note will appear at a tempo of 126 ...


5

The most common version of this, in my experience, is actually the French augmented-sixth chord built on the lowered second scale degree. In C, this creates D♭–F–G–B. This would be a French sixth in the key of F, but in the key of C it actually functions as an altered dominant. Since the V7 in C is G–B–D–F, this French chord on scale-degree ♭2 is just a V7♭...


5

an answer to this question should at least contain the hint that this chord Db-F-Ab-B is used in Jazz as tritonus-substitution of the V7b5: G-B-Db-F-Ab (V7b5b9) the dominant 7 chord with dim5 and min9. see example 2: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tritone_substitution and yes, the voice leading is the same as in the German 6th: we'll have the same 5th ...


5

...the melody I wrote just seemed like random notes of the chromatic scale... In a way you are describing in a nutshell what 12 tone music is. Of course it isn't really random. The constraint to use all 12 in sequence is meant to equalize their importance and thereby eschew tonality, and that is not random. I suppose you could describe the resulting atonal ...


5

I'm not quite sure why F-Ab-C-D would be considered closer to FmM7 than Fm7; in any event, your chord is an Fm6 chord. You could also interpret the chord D-F-Ab-C as a Dm7b5, or half-diminished chord. The minor/major part of FmM7 indicates that the chord is an Fm chord with a major 7th, to distinguish it from an Fm7 with a minor 7th; note that the "minor" ...


5

Yes, put in a "5:3" where the "5" would normally be in a quintuplet and everything will be unambiguous. Music notation software like Musescore supports this ratio tuplet notation. I'd probably use a 16th note quintuplet (well, 5:3-plet) for this purpose. (I ended up using a 16th note 9:8-plet in a transcription once.)


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