If it really IS a passing note, 'sharpen it going up, flatten it going down' is a good guideline. This has nothing to do with the key signature.
A and B below involve a different set of decisions than C and D.
You can't just transpose a minor key into a major key, because a minor scale has a different structure than a major scale.
Natural minor scale in steps: whole, half, whole, whole, half, whole, whole
Major scale in steps: whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half
Because you've talked about cents... 100 cents are equal to one semitone.
So you could ...
You could transpose the G minor sample to A minor, which is the relative minor of C Major, which means that it uses the same notes as C Major and the sample won't clash (too much) with other elements in C Major. You'll have to judge whether the combination of A minor and C Major elements in the track sounds good or not on a case by case basis.
That would ...
Playing D major over Gmaj7 creates the sound of the Lydian mode. These days, most jazz players prefer to use Lydian instead over the major scale (Ionian) - it's part of the sound of jazz since about the 1970s.
The only difference between the major scale and the Lydian mode is that major has a natural 4, while Lydian has a #4. This #4 (also a #11) is ...
It really depends on your harmonic structure. It depends firstly on the scale you are in and then what you are trying to do.
When you have sharps in the key signature, you'll most likely use sharps as accidentals.
You'll choose your accidental depending on where you want to move afterwards. The case usually is sharp when you move up, flat when you move ...
Adding to Shev's answer, it also ought to reflect the harmonic structure of what chord is being represented. Although this is often ignored to make things easier to read. E.g. going from C>F, using C+ as the harmony, the G♯/A♭ should be the former, as the G has been sharpened; If going from F>C through Fm, the G♯/A♭ ought to be A♭, ...
Yes, put in a "5:3" where the "5" would normally be in a quintuplet and everything will be unambiguous. Music notation software like Musescore supports this ratio tuplet notation.
I'd probably use a 16th note quintuplet (well, 5:3-plet) for this purpose.
(I ended up using a 16th note 9:8-plet in a transcription once.)
A simple transposition won't be able to change a sample from minor to major, because a transposition won't change the frequency ratios between the notes (which is what's required to be able to change the tonality).
One answer might be to use a special kind of audio editor that can pick out the individual notes in an audio recording. Celemony's Melodyne is ...
He means the chord. "D major over G." D major chord over G. Chord symbol: D/G. You can play that in place of Gmaj7, and it will do the "maj7" thing, but in a more colorful way. It's almost Gmaj9, but leaving out the usual G and B notes of a regular G major chord, assuming a bass player plays the G. You can play a maj9 chord almost always if there's a written ...
The basic chords...
Dm Bb F
Dm Bb Gm
...look for pairs of chords whose roots are a fifth apart...
Eb Bb and Bb F
...such pairs are possible tonic and dominant chords. If you can make a case that you have real dominant to tonic movements, those tonics could be your keys.
I would say that a circle of fifths progression in modal music is just as practical, or impractical, as in tonal music. The effect of motion is similar, and runs the same risk of getting boring if carried too far.
I assume that this question arises because you're composing on a fixed-pitch instrument, tuned in 12-tone equal temperament, without distinction between enharmonic notes. Probably a piano.
For convenience, I shall denote the 12 notes of the chromatic scale with the integers modulo 12, using the convention that 0=C, 2=D, 4=E, 5=F, 7=G, 9=A, and 11=B; with 1,...
To my ear, the tune is not sol-mi-7-sol-mi. The 7 is too high. This accords with the fact that the harmonic seventh is more than twice as far from the equal tempered major sixth (a difference of 68.83 cents) as it is from the equal-tempered minor seventh (a difference of 31.17 cents).
One could make a case for it being 7-sol-do-7-sol, however. This makes ...