This resolution is called a backdoor cadence, which part of another common progression referred to as the backdoor ii-V, and it is used often in jazz standards.
This article from educator Anton Schwartz includes a list of jazz standards that utilize it: https://antonjazz.com/2012/01/backdoor-ii-v-progression/ It also includes some information on the theory ...
In the scenario described, it would be harmony. In essence, it's just two chords that happen to be broken up rather than played as a single block.
However, the broader question depends on context. Often arpeggios are used as a decorative form of harmony, but they can serve as counterpoint, which is a technique Bach uses quite frequently. That is, the ...
Well, a rule of thumb is that a resolution is nice (and sounds as such) if you can go from the first chord to the second just by moving each tone up or down by at most a tone.
(So, if you put a bit of thought into it, you will see that it's actually not entirely easy to write two chords so that the first does not resolve into the second!)
So for instance, A7 ...
A rhythm, by definition, is a pattern. If that pattern includes regular rubato, then that becomes part of that pattern.
So yes, it turns into a feature of that rhythm. Could depend, of course, on how regularly it features.
Seems a reasonable comment. One modification is decoration. Modify EVERY time and it becomes 'baked in'.
I don't think there's any deep musical insight required here. It's just a description in plain English.
This type of musical texture with a single melodic line over a chordal accompaniment is called homophony.
Counterpoint, on the other hand, is known as polyphony, which involves two (or more) independent melodic lines.
Both homophony and polyphony contain harmony. In a polyphonic texture, the harmony is created by the interplay of the two (or more) voices, ...
The bass notes are important. The chord you have labelled E♭ has a C root. Think of it as some sort of C chord. (It persists for the whole first half of that bar. Where you've marked B♭ there's no D or F notes.) The second half of the bar has a D root.
Now we've got a basic root harmony of C, D, G. That makes a lot more sense in an E minor context, ...
There are a few reasons, the first and most important is good voice leading:
C-C# (or D)
E-F# (or D)
D-C# (or D, common tone)
Next, in its basic form of bVII (and for that matter as a 7 or 9 chord too), it is a chord borrowed from the parallel minor. The bVII is probably the most commonly used non-diatonic chord in many styles of music. It has been ...
Not really much of a modulation, except getting to the relative major of G.
It happens in many pieces. Your E♭ harmony I'd put at Cm7, the 'B♭' is included, then there's Dm7, followed by an F chord. That's the 'odd' one. It can be said to be borrowed from the parallel key (Gm), and is often used instead of V - it's called ♭VII.
These terms are loaded. When the word counterpoint is used it connotes polyphony, multiple, independent, equally important lines, like a fugue. I suppose for some harmony connotes chords which some think means not melody, or something like that.
But, the simple fact is if you have more than one pitch simultaneously, you have multiple lines. The only question ...
From B major to Bb major is one semitone down. On most computer music programs this would be achieved by changing it -1.
Technically you can get from one key to another in either direction, up or down since the 12 notes cycle around but in this case -1 is the obvious choice since the other option is +11.
I've seen transposing function in a few different notation programs. They will differ from program to program, options I have seen include:
interval of transposition
diatonic or chromatic
Watch out for enharmonic spelling changes
Sometimes software offers a 'key change' type function.
You need to transpose down one half step. If you have ...
Duration is a key to deciding whether something is a modulation or not.
For example, in m. 2 the accidental-carrying chords -- and the chords they lead to -- suggest we could be looking at G major. But since the following measures clearly aren't G major, there's not enough to call this a modulation.
By contrast, in mm. 21-25, we see lots of F#s, A#s, and C#...
Taking the left hand part into account, I would analyze  as Am9-Bm7, and  as Cm7-Dm7. So  functions in the same way as Cmaj7-Ddim7. In the key of G major,  is a iv-v-I, which may be analyzed as modal interchange by the parallel minor.
You are correct that 6 indicates a first inversion chord -- specifically a first inversion triad. A first inversion seventh chord would be indicated 6-5, which the 6 above the 5.
However, there are problems with your Roman numerals.
The first chord is either a Gmin6 or an EbMaj7. Either way, i is not entirely correct. In G minor, it would either be i6 or VI[...
Look carefully at the original chart. At the top is C major pent. Those exact same notes constitute Am pent.
So, do nothing! It's already all there! The note order is slightly different, no big deal. The order of neighbouring sets of notes will remain. You want Am pent at the top. It is!
To recreate the C Major chart as an A Minor chart:
Move all the pentatonic scale names 3 positions counter-clockwise. That is, A replaces C, E replaces G, and so on. Leave the other elements of the chart -- the notes in each scale and the number of "outside" notes -- as they currently are. Only the names of the scales are rotated.
The notes for ...
There are several scales called "minor pentatonic", I presume you mean the most common "blues pentatonic". Its notes are identical to its parallel (third above) major pentatonic, thus the chart in question would look identical.
C major pentatonic = A minor pentatonic
G major pentatonic = E minor pentatonic
...and so on.