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1

Have you ever heard of J.S. Bach? Just have a look at one of his minor pieces: Inventions (e.g. D-minor, G-minor)), Preludes and Fugues (WTC) or his Ricercare. (In the same measure one voice can have a raised 6th and 7h, while the other voice is lowered respectively natural. You will find thousands of examples of what like Aaron says in his comment: ...


0

As with all music, do what you like. Others may not like what you do, though. The basic premise with minor keys is that originally, using the natural minor notes, there was no leading note - the note that is only one semitone below the tonic in major keys. So it was felt that in rder to achieve that pull towards the tonic, the normally flattened 7th note ...


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Sometimes the sixth is raised, sometimes the seventh, sometimes both. It's entirely up to the composer. If you are the composer you can write whatever you want.


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Sharp keys: from last sharp Major = Half-step up Minor = Whole-step down Flat keys: last flat = root of a major chord Minor = Chordal third Major = Chordal fifth For sharp keys Note the three-note (minor) scale formed by each row. Num. #s Minor Last # Major 1 E F# G 2 B C# D 3 F# G# A 4 C# D# E 5 G# A# B 6 D# E# F# 7 A# B# C# For flat keys Note ...


0

From what I can tell the two systems don't seem to have a common origin. The two systems have a common organizing principle, which is the performance of a melody over a drone. This is no longer a prominent element of European music, but it was dominant in the middle ages and perhaps before. While this may not account precisely for every tone in the major ...


2

As you point out, of the seven modes of the major scale, the Ionian (major) and Aeolian (natural minor) are 'preferred', or perhaps used more often. Also, the labeling system seems to accord special paradigmatic value to these two modes. Now one should note right of the bat that there is plenty of music (popular and otherwise) that uses melodies and chord ...


1

The closest thing to a formula is the circle of fifths; key signatures operate in conjunction with the circle. → → → Add sharps/Remove flats → → → Total sharps Total flats ------------------------- -------------------------- 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 /6 5 4 3 2 1 (0) Major key: C G ...


1

Here's how musicians do this quickly. Your prerequisites are going to be: Memorize all 12 major and minor key signatures. Memorize the order of the notes on the keyboard Memorize the size of every interval you might have to transpose by This might sound like a lot, but every* professional musician has already done this. (drummers included? I don't know)....


1

Yes, but your question title and body describe two difference cases that bring up different terminology. ...A major triad using the C-shape...playing the A string open In other words: x 12 11 9 x x becomes x 0 11 9 x x. When the tones of the chord are arranged without skips - basically within one octave for triads and seventh chords - it is called close ...


2

In short: because good melodies try to implicate a harmonic progression even when sung or played without any accompaniment, they are bound to contain chord root notes in critical points in time. Since chords are built from thirds above roots, you have to place your harmony notes above the melody, in order to produce the chordal harmony implied by the melody ...


1

For starters, singing a note a third above, for every note sung is not going to work in every, or many, songs.Those with the same tonic chord for several bars will allow it to sound o.k., but simply following the lead line in thirds, fourths, fifths or any 'parallel' interval is doomed to sound bad at some point. Sorry! Singing underneath has worked for ever,...


12

This is usually referred to as an open or spread voicing, it is a general term to indicate the voicing of the chord spans beyond regular stacking, or close voicing. You are right that it isn’t an inversion. The guitar lends itself to many different ways to voice the same chord. Depending on the chord sometimes the guitar will give you options for open ...


3

It seems to me that an easy and fundamental point is being (partially) missed until now: the relation of the degrees of the melody and of the harmonization in the existing underlying harmony. When the melody plays a note of the harmony, with a third above the harmonization would lead to the seventh or ninth of the chord at most, all notes that are considered ...


2

After prolonged discussion I think I finally understand that you want to: type in a music notation that may include polytempo, polyrhythmic and/or polymetric structures visualise it in a piano roll that preserves lengths of the notes play it back accurately Concerning 1. I'm not sure if there is software allowing you to type in polytempo scores, and ...


4

'Ode To Joy' SORT of works with 3rds above, though a maj7 chord on the third note isn't quite what Beethoven intended! The more usual harmonisation starts off with 3rds below, though this soon needs to be modified so as not to mangle the intended harmony. That's the trouble with trying to stick to either 3rds above or below. It works for a bit, then you ...


2

Algorithm: Take the length of the first note or rest (expressed as a fraction reduced to its lowest terms) as the initial value of the LCD. Then, for each note or rest, divide the note duration by the LCD, reduce this fraction to its lowest terms, and then divide the LCD by the denominator of this fraction. Example: Note/rest durations: 3/4 ; 1/1 ; 1/8 ; 3/...


2

What you have to say about harmonizing above the melody sounding better than below is basically your opinion, which is fine, but can’t be subjectively answered. Music is art and we make our own esthetic choices when composing or arranging. Also, the fact is that good harmonization is not quite as simple as a 3rd up or down. Sometimes you have to break away ...


4

We tend to hear the lower note as the more stable tone. So, all things being equal, it would be perceived as the root -- or at least the more important note -- of the corresponding chord. Singing a third above, then, suggests a major or minor chord based on the melody note. Whereas singing a third below would make the harmony sound like the defining pitch. A ...


3

The simplest algorithm is: 1. Lay out all of the notated durations (notes and rests) in each voice in a single stream, including any tempo change indications.1 2. Let qi=0 = the starting basic duration. 3. Go to the first notation. 4. Repeat { 5. If there's a new tempo, adjust qi proportionally. 6. If the current notation is a fraction of the current ...


0

Is there no key signature? I’m guessing 3 flats, C minor to C major in the 5th bar because of the natural E’s. Looks like part of the “Game of Thrones” theme. This looks like a school assignment and your question is unclear but I’ll offer some ideas that might help. First you say your simple time signature is 3/4 and your compound is 6/8. What do you mean? ...


0

C minor / F minor / G major = C harmonic minor.


2

One analogy of composition is that it's like embarking on a musical journey. You have mentioned that both sequences feature the circle of fifths, but you haven't referenced the fact that to go through the circle of fifths is like setting out on a journey. The first few chords in a circle of fifths is like setting out for a walk on a very well-known terrain. ...


5

"Melisma" and "Lick" are essentially unrelated. A "melisma" is a series of notes all sung to the same syllable. A "lick" is a short musical idea, typically used in improvisational music, that can serve as a showy moment or as a motif within the music. Where your textbook is accurate is that the two terms tend to be ...


0

G-Major seems a completely unrelated chord in the circle of fifths If that's so, then how is this possible: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle_of_fifths#Jazz_and_popular_music Fly Me to the Moon is presented as an example of the circle of fifths. Here are the beginning chords in C minor: Cm Fm Bb Eb Ab Ddim G7 Cm. There's a G major chord in there, in C ...


4

...All very close in the circle-of-fifths...completely unrelated chord in the circle of fifths... The circle of fifths isn't the "be all end all" of harmony. You should also learn about counterpoint and voice leading. But, let's stick with the circle of fifths for now, but with one change: rather than a literal circle of fifths consider root ...


3

A V in a minor progression, especially before the i, sounds pleasant because the third of the V is a one semitone below the root and acts as a leading tone which resolves up to the tonic. Examples: The chorus of Eastbound and Down (Em C A B7) [as a bonus, the fifth of B7 is also a leading tone to the G major that starts the verse in E&D] and the verse of ...


2

If we play in Cm and want to have a leading tone we have to augment the 7th tone Bb => B. (This is the historical evolution of the music!) Now, this transformation we have a major dominant chord G,B,D which is borrowed from C-major, the parallel of Cm. After a modulation from Cm to G you can easily modulate from G to Em (relative key of G.) E.g. : Cm-Fm-...


3

G major contains G B and D. G and D are already diatonic to the scale of C minor. In other words, they are part of that scale. The plot thickens, though, when we find out that there are different minor scales. The first is a direct steal from its relative major. So, in key Cm, all the notes come from the E♭ major scale. Which contains B♭. Then there's two ...


8

The G major chord is the "usual" dominant in the key of C minor. The harmonic point is the half-step approach to the note C from B. It is extremely common. As a side note, often, when a phrase is repeated like Cm-Fm-Bb-Gm-Cm-Cm-Fm-Bb-G7-Cm would be common. The opening is a section of the cycle of fifths (or "circle" or "fourths" ...


10

In short, no. If you take a tube, closed at both ends (or opened at both ends, depending if you are talking about nodes of pressure, or nodes of displacements), the fundamental will indeed have an anti-node and two nodes. However, there are instruments which are making the sound from tubes closed at one end (the organ for instance). In that case, the ...


2

A complete CMaj11(#13) chord is spelled C E G B D F A#, and a C11 (that is, Cdominant11) is spelled C E G Bb D F. So these are not equivalent, because one contains B natural and the other does not. However, it's true that both chords contain the enharmonically equivalent (i.e., they represent the same pitch) A# and Bb. The difference in spelling relates to ...


0

The assumption behind the question is that the pentatonic scale can serve as a key or tonal center. I think that's probably a problematic assumption. For example, treating the pentatonic scale as a tonal center means that a song in C Maj pentatonic should never move to F Maj (since the the IV chord is not a step in the major pentatonic scale). To me, the ...


-1

To add to all the answers (and to summarize), the names weren't thought from English, not even from an alphabet but a religious text. English names were way too later (as far as I know), so even if romance languages and English (and some other maybe) have "ABCDEFG" as the first letters in their alphabet, Guido d'Arezzo didn't think about the ...


9

Your description is more or less the "gapped" or "skipped" view of the pentatonic scale which is a major scale with the 4th and 7th degrees skipped or removed. The reading I have done basically says the pentatonic scale is not derived from a major scale, or diatonic scale. The pentatonic scale is its own entity: a five tone scale with ...


3

Keeping the same names for the same notes makes sense. The tonic is still going to be the tonic, whatever. That then paves the way for the supertonic to still be the supertonic - one above the tonic. The mediant is halfway between tonic and dominant, so retains its name. No sub-dominant (sub = less important), but dominant is still just that- dominant. Any ...


2

I don't think it would be completely correct to consider those names in a strictly pentatonic concept, as those names only belong to the 7 diatonic steps scales. Considering this, anyway, it's common to use that nomenclature even in pentatonic context, mostly because pentatonic scales are introduced as "reductions" of diatonic scales; this is also ...


2

The ukulele shares qualities with the recorder and the melodica, along with some other instruments, that hold it back in the pantheon of instruments in terms of respect and status as a "serious" instrument: Limited note range Limited dynamic range Limited timbral range Limited microtonality To amplify the last point, while you can bend notes on a ...


4

My read of the assignment is that "stylistic features" is intentionally non-specific. You (the student) can pick any musical elements that give the piece being analyzed its particular sound, are typical of the composer or genre, have historical or cultural importance, or that you find noteworthy. That could be the instruments used, the tempo and/...


2

Yes, in keyboards that provide some form of accompaniment, the "ending" is a pattern that ends all musical parts in a certain duration (usually predefined by the current "style"). Depending on the keyboard, the "ending" could begin as soon as the button is pressed (by immediately changing the pattern) or at the next bar. If the ...


15

As is common with these sorts of questions, there's a lot of speculation in various answers. But, if the question is at least historically why C is the central note of the modern musical scale system, there's one specific and rather clear origin point: Gioseffo Zarlino's Dimostrationi harmoniche of 1571. Zarlino was perhaps the most influential music ...


0

It might be a good idea to try arranging before composing. Getting to know how a melody could be split across the ensemble and how the parts interact is exciting. You could start with something simple like Pachelbel's canon. This is a good song to start with a bassline and slowly add more complexity. A more complicated cannon is Bach's Little Fugue in G-...


0

The string quartet is an inherently contrapuntal medium, and having four relatively similar sounding instruments making it harder to pick out the counterpoint actually makes it more necessary to have counterpoint, not less. If you are thinking of having a melody, a bass, and harmony parts, then you're thinking of writing for a quartet all wrong. Although it ...


8

Writing a string quartet is a goal of mine too. I can't advise from a background of finished quartets, but I can share what I've tried to get there. But first, I think don't keep trying to adapt chorales. Certainly you can play chorales with a string quartet, and it sounds nice, but the texture is different than the typical string quartet. For example, in ...


3

A couple of things you should be aware of, first the Fsus4 shouldn’t be labeled as major since Fsus4 has no 3rd. Also, major chords don’t need to be labeled as maj, C and G is all you need. I agree with Lawrence that this can’t be labeled as any key in particular, to me it mostly wanders around different tonalities every 2 bars, which is totally fine. My ...


1

With the given material, we can be pretty sure that it clearly is in C, and most certainly in C major. The fact that it begins in C minor is not that indicative of the overall mode, and there's plenty of music that begins with a different mode. There are many clues for this assumption. It's in C because: it begins with a C chord; it returns in C within the ...


1

As you say, there's no one key that contains all those chords. But there's a lot of keys that it definitely ISN'T in :-) There's some C major/C minor. Then some E♭ major (the relative major of C minor).


0

C#m7b5 means the 5th is diminished, so we have no G# but G (b5) should actually be not a flat but the natural sign: C#m => the m refers to the minor 3rd of C#-E, the 7 refers to the 7th of C# = B. Thus the chord is C#,E,G,B. The signature m7b5 is the tetrad of the ii degree of a minor scale or the vii degree of the major scale: C#,E,G,B is the 2nd degree ...


1

Terminology is the beginning of theory so I'd say these are the same discipline. A good series is, Master Theory Book by Charles S Peters and Paul V. Yoder Vol. 1 - 6 These are short, easy to read, and well written. Vol 1 - 3 are basic theory and 4 - 6 harmony. The harmony books do not have great exercises. For Harmony I prefer Cheyette and Paulson. If ...


1

If I want to look up a question about scales or keyboard or music symbols I type in google the word e.g. piano, keyboard, music clef or the song title e.g.Summertime + Gershwin and then I look up Images and scroll all the pictures through. From there I find the link to the source of this picture and a lot of new information. It took a long time until I've ...


1

Read a good book. I started with Learning to Read Music by Peter Nickol. Then The AB Guide to Music Theory Part 1 and First Steps in Music Theory Grades 1 to 5 by Eric Taylor, both published by the ABRSM. If you're planning to do the ABRSM grades, then the Eric Taylor books match the exams. Otherwise, they aren't very reader-friendly, and can be ignored.


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