New answers tagged

1

This is a so called extender and specifies that the given chord note should be held for the given duration. As others have pointed out in this case this is rather useless, as the first chord would be a sixth chord on the c, so C-E-A, and this would tell to hold the A. But the next chord would be A-C-E anyway. A more useful case would be something like this: ...


0

The note that corresponds to 6 vertically determines the chord. That chord holds throughout that line in question. Hence it is all "A minor" (supposing that there are no flats-sharps). Firstly the 3rd (C) is in the bass, and then the root (A) is in the bass.


-1

It means that you should play a sixth above the C (the written "6") and then continue to hold that note (the horizontal line) while the bass continues to A. In other words, play an A and hold it through both bass notes.


5

Reading the linked page I got to this line... A Forecasting Cell is a harmonic convention that illuminates the end result of a harmonic sentence preceding its resolution. Because the end result of the harmonic sentence is already outlined, the improviser and accompanist are... I thought it would continue with something like "free to deviate from ...


2

The dominant chord in a key - V - is simply a triad. It doesn't have to be a dominant seventh - although that, with the tritone, makes it 'even more dominant'. So, similarly, secondary dominants don't need to be secondary dominant sevenths, although the same idea is present. In fact, secondary dominants don't even have to lead straight to the chord they're ...


3

Dominant chords can be triads, not just seventh chords. So, yes, the F#M chord here is the secondary dominant leading to Bm. The chord progression is I - V/vi - vi - V(or V7).


7

Two items come to mind: The two and three part inventions. Bach wrote a preface to those in which he stated... Sincere instruction...not only to compose good inventions, but to develop them well...and to acquire a taste fro the elements of composition. The 371 harmonized chorales. In the preface the author states... ...we know from C.P.E. Bach's preface [...


1

I usually see the pentatonic scale degree numbers like 1 2 3 5 6. Obviously, those aren't ordinal numbers. If you want to break away from the notion that those are the numbers of a "gapped" major scale, to dispel the notion that the pentatonic scale was derived from a major scale, just think of the numbers as references to intervals above the tonic....


2

if there is a C Mixolydian(or F major scales), is the key considered as F major or C major? C major and F major are keys in the major/minor system. Modal music is a different system, and there are a few different modal styles. For practical purposes you can think of major and minor keys as "major mode" or "minor mode." In fact, in theory ...


2

If you feel the tonality of a piece is C Mixolydian, and you want to talk or write about that tonality, the most concise thing to say is that it is in C Mixolydian. Simply saying that it is in F major will imply that F is the tonic, and if you say it's in C major, you lose the information about the mixolydian tonality. One of the unfortunate things about ...


3

I’m going to answer solely based on your chord progression of C to Bb. If that’s all there is the ear will likely hear the C as the I tonic chord and the Bb as the bVII. There is no F chord in sight so there’s no reason to think of this as V to IV. This chord progression sounds like it is derived from the C Mixolydian scale. You can’t necessarily say the ...


1

Am7 - D7sus4 D7 - Gmaj7 - E7sus4 E7 x 2 Diatonic to a key signature of one sharp, G is a reasonable tonic. The E7 is a secondary dominant to the Am7, assuming x 2 means the progression repeats. Root progression by fifths. Am7 Bm7 - Cmaj7 D7(9) - Gmaj7 Also a tonic of G. Note the root progression by steps, not fifths, I think that may be relevant to the &...


-2

Assuming all the chord progressions you provided are correct, and without listening to the piece... The chord progression Am7 - D7sus4 D7 - Gmaj7 - E7sus4 E7 x 2 Am7 Bm7 - Cmaj7 D7(9) - Gmaj7 - Fmaj9 is actually in A minor, not G major. The E -> Am general chord progression at the E7 x 2 Am7 section and the fact that the chord progression starts with Am7 ...


0

So this is somewhat the harmonic structure of the piece: [INTRO] Gmaj7(7) Cmaj7(3) Gmaj7(7)/7 Cmaj7(3) Bm7(3) em7(7) Bm7(5-3) GP C/Em [VERSE I] Am7 D[4-3](9-8) Gmaj7(7) E7[4-3]/7 Am7(7) D[5-8][4-3](5) Gmaj7 E7[9-10] Am7 D7 Gmaj7 E7[4-3][5-7] Am7 Bm7 Cmaj7 D7 Gmaj7 → Fmaj7,9→Fo Cm7,9 F7(6) Bfm7,9 Ef7(6) Am7,9 D7 [VERSE II] Am7 D[4-3][9-8] Gmaj7(7) E7[4-3]/...


1

Let's stick with, for now, the 6 main chords used diatonically. I, ii, iii, IV, V and vi - omitting the not-so-common viio. Establishing the I is the most important start, and we're looking for the chord that sounds like the piece has come 'home' - to a place where it could end satisfactorally. Back to the start of the piece - which most often is I. Contnue ...


2

I studied classical composition with real contemporary composers at 2 conservatories and finally one other music academy. The consensus that these composers all pointed out, is that Bach obviously didn't think about vertical harmonies like we do today, because he came from a polyphonic musical tradition. So all of his harmonies are a result of voice leading, ...


0

My take is that the intro clearly is in Db major with the melody notes (other than the passing D and E chromatic) all in the Db major scale. I agree the key change occurs in bar seven when the Em leads to the dominant A7 setting us firmly into the D-major key, clearly the home key of the song. This is definitely one of the most innovative tunes and harmonic &...


1

Numbers: 1 2 3 5 6 don't represent pentatonic scale degrees. They list 5 pitches of a major scale used in the specific pentatonic scale – major pentatonic in this case. In jazz/pop nomenclature major (ionian) scale is a typically used reference, so e.g. a scale commonly called minor pentatonic has pitches 1 b3 4 5 b7. There are some other conventions, e.g. ...


1

I am gonna answer this 8 years old question, cuz I want to make this concept more clear to others and myself, I am learning counterpoint. Battuta means 'beaten', there are ottava battuta (beaten octave) and quinta battuta(beaten fifths). Battuta happens when: In contrary motion If we are not in contrary motion, octaves and fifths are forbidden, the ...


0

Since the diatonic scale has become the base for so much where terminology is concerned, then yes, the (major) pent. notes maybe should be called 1,2,3,5,6. However since it's accepted that the pent. scale pre-existed the diatonic, then the pent. notes ought to be simply 1,2,3,4,5! It's probably easier for most of us to use the diatonic scale as the datum ...


0

Can any diminished chord be used as V anywhere? In tonal harmony you can play a diminished chord on any root any time and have it act as a dominant (better to call it a dominant and not a V, it's Roman numeral should always be viio) to some tonic. But that statement is broad to the point of not being useful. You asked about "anywhere?" What do you ...


1

No, you cannot use any diminished 7th chord as a dominant-function chord and get away with it. Any diminished 7th chord that does not include the home key's leading tone and is immediately followed by a tonic chord is a common-tone diminished 7th chord instead. This is called that because it shares at least one chord tone with a neighbouring chord. Common ...


0

In addition to what Tim has said, not in contradiction to it, I'd add: Yes, it's good to practice jamming, and improvisation is its own skill. But when we improvise, we often simply re-use skills that we learned elsewhere in new combinations. When we practice scales, arpeggios, I-IV-V chord changes, etc., we're building a vocabulary that we can pull from &...


2

Sounds like your problem is basically you are not good enough or quick enough changing chord shapes. It doesn't matter too much whether those chord shapes are major or minor, but you just happen to be weaker with, I guess, Am, Dm and Em. Which is strange, as all three shapes, on open chords, are actually easier to get to than C, F and G open! If you wish to ...


-1

4 things: Barry Harrisy chord right there. Could think of it as resolving to Cmaj6/E spelled (E G A C). Sounds very nice when approached with a Ddim7. That Ebdim is a #superhip way to spell a g chord that gives jarring bright results As suspension rather than dominant, because Ebdim7 spelled (Eb Gb/F# A C) is like just a C6sus where the 5th and 3rd are ...


0

Look at the major scale intervals WWHWWWH Starting with CMajor the notes are CDEFGAB(C). The EF and BC fall on the H's so there's no sharps or flats. But the next key up starts at position 5, but then the EF doesn't fall on an H but instead a W. So a half step is needed on note 7. In Gmajor the 6 and 7th notes are E and F# where as in C they were A-B (a ...


3

I understand that an easy way to determine the 'key' of a piece of music is to either look at the last sharp within the key signature and add a half step (semitone), ... Technically, when the sharp is added to the key signature it signifies that tone becomes the leading tone and so the half step above that will be the tonic... provided the mode is major. ...


2

If I have not said it hundreds of times, it is because I have said it thousands of times. Makes me rather nostalgic of my teaching days. The flat keys always count four steps past its name. It is how the circle of fourths work for the keys with flats in them. The circle of fifths count 5 steps forward for the new key and then 4 steps forward - FROM THE SAME ...


11

Adding sharps / Removing flats Consider the following definition of a major scale (W = Whole Step; H = Half step): W W H W W W H This gives us scale degrees and intervals between as follows: 1 W 2 W 3 H 4 W 5 W 6 W 7 H 8 Now we're going to start the "next" major scale beginning on degree 5 of the previous scale. Thus things map as follows: ...


1

Within the context of the derived chord progression, "the theory" behind it is the (re-)discovery of a core principle of voice-leading: the voices should move primarily by (whole or half) step. Once this chord progression is achieved, the relationship to the augmented chord becomes secondary, even though that was the starting point for its creation....


1

As a practical matter I think it has to do with range. If you need to stay within a certain range (singer's range, fingering requirements, timbral reason like muddy bass region, or contrapuntal reasons like trying to keep voices from crossing) you might choose accordingly. What type of emotion or feel would be conveyed either way? There are some emotional/...


3

It feels a lot less mystical if you think about it linearly instead of drawing lines on a circle. Like on a piano keyboard, or in terms of modulo arithmetic. Modulo arithmetic means dividing all results by a number and taking the remainder, for example 4+3+3+4 = 2 (modulo 12). Which means that the 9th in a 9 chord, which is 14 semitones above root, is the ...


4

You are going on the assumption that chords have to be played from the root up. This is not the case at all. When moving from one chord to another the most common and most logical thing to do is to use inversions of chords — so as not to have large jumps from one to the other. In case you’re not familiar, an inversion of a chord is when the notes are the ...


3

I don't think I have enough of a handle on this to create an proper answer, so take this as an extended comment, but I have heard from many older jazz musicians about this whole alternative way of viewing jazz theory, or some would say ORIGINAL jazz theory, that centre's heavily around the augmented chord. I've had it laid out to me at some point by a ...


1

Thirds were never considered dissonances in European music, but until the 11th century, they were left out of the list of consonant intervals for discant but included consonances for organum and plainchant. The scientists of music theory made an attempt to update ancient Greek theory, via Boethius, to match some aspects of current practice insofar as ...


-3

You do not need to learn theory to learn an instrument. You can enjoy learning and playing pieces, even improvise by ear. But theory is interesting in its own right. I have benefited from learning theory and enjoy seeing the patterns that naturally exist in music. I would also point out that what you are referring to is likely Western Music Theory. ...


0

You can use a concrete example if it helps. In the following example, you can start with a C5 power chord and add the G below to create the first inversion: https://anyfret.com/snapshots/AduyxnyEJqz5pB7fBoRp However, if you start with the G on the first string and add a P4 and octave you get the same chord: They're tonally identical, only the context ...


1

The thing that's caused confusion here is that often we see the slash notation and we think of the plain triad chord (on the left of the slash) and the bass note (on the right of the slash). This lets us do a harmonic analysis of the whole chord. Often you can identify that the bass note is the third or fifth of the triad. But - in the given chord example, E/...


2

It is indeed the NNS - Nashville Number System. Each chord in a key is given a number, corresponding to the note number in that key. Here, in D♭ - D♭ =1, E♭ = 2, F = 3, G♭ = 4, A♭ = 5, and B♭ = 6. That may seem to be extra stuff for little purpose - just write the perishing chords, please! But, the idea is far reaching. In the recording studio, for example, ...


6

This is Nashville chord notation system https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nashville_Number_System The numbers refer to the scale steps on which the chords are built. The song is in the key of Db major. 1 means chord built on the first step, Db major. 1/3 means Db chord with 3rd scale degree in bass, F. 3m is a minor chord built on the 3rd scale degree, F minor. ...


0

¨The Maj7 is the leading tone in a chromatic minor scale -> the major 7th: The natural 7th in Aeolion is a minor 7th and requires a sharp to become a leading tone. e.g. G# ( leadtone) in chromatic A-minor is notated as Am♯7 In Cm the major 7th is B and the chord Cm with an notated as Cm♮7. The natural ♮ is needed because the Cm scale and the ...


-1

Seventh chords have four notes, each note having one in between, which means a span of seven notes. The span between the triad notes can only be WW (augmented triad - "+"), WH (major triad - "M"), HW (minor triad - "m"), or HH (diminished triad - "°") because of the half-step/whole-step pattern. So what are the ...


0

In a melodic line progressing in 2nds (stepwise) a tone altered by a flat "wants" to lead downwards (e.g. b7, b6), when altered by a sharp it leads upwards (e.g. augmented 2nds, 4ths, 5ths, 6ths). In your exampel the tritonus Fa Ti produces a strong dissonance with two tendings: Fa resolves down, Ti is leading tone and resolves upwards. ( B is ...


1

When we speak of music theory, we tend to mean "common practice era" theory — the theory of Mozart, Beethoven, and their peers up until the twentieth century. However, jazz and popular music, while they do often adhere to the same theoretical ideas, they also tend to depart from it, and this would seem one of those times. Jazz and popular styles ...


3

Although this change isn't necessarily "widespread" yet, one change we are starting to see is a shift from "vertical" thinking to more "horizontal" thinking. For years, jazz pedagogy was very much focused on the chords (hence "vertical") as determinants for what scales to use when improvising. This emphasis on chords ...


0

I view this as a modification of the progression from "Puff the Magic Dragon." The progression from that song, I–iii–IV–I, would be A–C♯m–D–A in the key of A. The only difference between this progression and your progression is that you replace the opening A chord (I) with F♯m (vi). And this is a very common substitution: theorists since at least ...


6

It's ultimately a question of your reference point when you use the term "dissonant": in other words, when you say a particular pitch is dissonant, be mindful of what you're saying it's dissonant against. When we say that dissonances typically want to resolve down, we're specifically talking about dissonances in relation to the current chordal root....


0

The problem stems (IMO) from the non-existence of a symbol for a major chord. If it existed, we would be accustomed to noticing its absence in sus chords, and thus we'd be accustomed to understanding the resolution of the sus from the key, rather than the sus chord's assumed major-ness.


3

This type of rule is based on the observation that most composers (from about 1400 to 1900 and continuing in popular music in the 2000s) have tried to maintain the coherence of musical lines. In the case mentioned (dissonant fourth against the bass), the notes of the dissonant fourth tend to move to the nearest notes that give a resolution. Let's look at a ...


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