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1

If we hadn't used 'tone' and 'semi-tone' (the slightly more cumbersome 'whole-step' and 'half-step' are, I think, a later Americanism) we'd doubtless have coined something like 'gap' and 'double-gap'. I doubt that Western music would have leapt straight into Dodecaphonism.


1

Half steps and whole steps (or tones and semitones) are used to build scales, not to define intervals. Intervals consist of two measurements one which is number of semitones the other is letter name distance. So people would never describe the interval of C to F as 2.5 steps, but a perfect fourth (P4). If there ever is a need to talk in pure chromatic steps ...


4

Start with the letter names - E-F-G-A-B. That's going to be a 5th - of some sort. Drop the E down a semitone, the interval's an augmented fifth. If, instead, the B goes up a semitone, that's also an augmented fifth. So, by dropping E to E♭, and taking B to B♯, it's a double augmented fifth interval. Which sounds exactly like a far more common major 6th.


12

I would say Eb - B# is a doubly augmented fifth. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interval_(music)#Example The letter name distance says it's a fifth: E - F - G - A - B, five different letter names (staff positions). You probably already knew this, but just for future readers: what you call the interval depends on what you call the notes. As you can see from ...


2

G7: the dominant seventh chord of C major.


1

Lower-case 'i' means the tonic chord of a minor key. The superscript '6' means first inversion. Intervals of a 6th and a third above the lowest note (the '3' is assumed.) Note that 'Cm6' (with an explicit letter-name) means something different. That's 'C minor sixth', a C minor triad with an added A.


3

This means a minor "one" chord (triad) in first inversion. The 6 is short for 6-3 (both superscripted, with the 6 above the three), meaning that the chord is arranged with a sixth and a third above the lowest pitch.


0

With chords There is any number of alternatives, but here's a quick one using bass inversions To Em: Em/B - B7 - Em To Am: Am/E - E7 - Am or a slight variation with bass movement: To Em: Em/B - B7/D# - Em To Am: Am/E - E7/G# - Am With a melodic line A punchy melodic line leading to the new tonic can be very effective too. To get to Am, play for example ...


0

"I've noticed that a few genres of music tend to discourage it" Which genres? Be specific. Jazz is the most improvisational genre I know of and they strongly encourage learning theory. "I just read that learning music theory "seems like the antithesis" of being able to improvise." This is very sad. Nothing could be further ...


0

Before we start, let me make one point. Theory books delight in concocting modulatory chord sequences to get the music from one key into another. In practice, we very often 'just jump in'. No preparation, no pivot chords, just start thinking in the new key. This is particularly possible with a very close move like Am to Em. However, if you want some '...


3

Regarding identifying intervals, you're likely better off matching intervals with the first 2 notes of well-known musical excerpts until you know your intervals by heart. That's how I was ear-trained on intervals. For example, Scott Joplin's "The Entertainer" has an early and distinctive ascending minor 6th leap in its melody, and "O Christmas ...


1

Almost every sound you can make will have its basic pitch, and to a greater or lesser extent, some harmonics which are inevitably included in its sound. Those harmonics, in most instruments, are quieter than the basic note, which will be the lowest sound heard. That's the pitch to consider most. Listen to a piano note, and the same note with a violin sound. ...


2

Using a simple chord E7 works well. Being a little more subtle, you could use Bm7 or Bm7♭5 before E7, then on to Am.


5

I have seen the basic "La Folia" described as a "double tonic" progression. The patterns i-V-i alternate with III-VII-III or i-V-i in the minor key followed by V-I-V in the relative major. Contemporary theorists mostly thought of this progression as a bass line with some stuff above it. The bass line is 1-V-1-7-3-7 with the melody 1-7-1-2-...


9

In a relative major key, VII - i would become V - vi which can be viewed as a deceive cadence. Because of this, you can think of certain sections of this progression dipping into the relative major where VII - III can be looked at as V/III - III and the deceptive resolution as a non functioning secondary dominant V/III - i which is expecting to have the V - ...


-1

I value musical theory and am working to expand my knowledge of it. It has opened new doors for me and connected islands of knowledge I’d previously stumbled into with concepts I didn’t know existed. I am indebted to everyone I’ve learned these concepts from, whether via text, in person or remotely, however: Some of us have had unpleasant experiences with ...


-1

Thank you all for nice thread of discussion. There is some light on that. I shall explain here in most simple and most convincing way. Actually, it is quite easy to understand why it is called as di-a-tonic scale. It basically means a scale with TWO (di) tonic centers. The one tonic (root) note is, (say) 'C' in C-Maj. scale. The second tonic (root) note is (...


0

A pentatonic scale is just a normal 7-note one with the two 'wrong' ones taken out. What we used to call the 'avoid notes'. But restricting yourself to those 5 notes just means you'll play something that doesn't sound wrong, not something interesting. Look at all the available notes (and that's ALL of them!) and think what their place would be over a C ...


2

You could reasonably call it either one, but I vote for passacaglia based on this: From "The Oxford Companion to Music", 2003, ed. Alison Latham, p. 932: In both French and German music the term [passacaglia] was often confounded with 'chaconne', in spite of attempts by several theorists ... to distinguish the two. In theory the passacaglia was in ...


3

TL;DR: Find the home note and home chord. Do not play random notes from a single scale First of all, two bad ideas you should try to get rid of: Bad idea #1: Select notes from a scale randomly. Bad idea #2: Use one single scale for the whole song regardless of what's happening in the backing chords. The scale you should think about often changes with the ...


2

The first step would be just to do it, right? The way you begin is to just begin. Then you improve from there. For instance, try this: find your favorite YouTube channel of somebody teaching music theory or performing song covers. Whatever you imagine yourself doing, consider what channel would be your prototype. What do you aspire to be? Now, go their their ...


1

It's probably more useful to know why to use which, rather than which to use. As a basic, with Am and C in the sequence, Am pent. and C maj. pent would be a good choice. As it happens, they're exactly the same notes! The pents work well, as they leave out the two notes which can be awkward to fit in: the 4 and 7 of maj. pent., or the 2 and 6 of min. pent. ...


0

Ooh. You are opening a great big box of musical history. Just to make it simple, look into a style called "bebop". This migth be one link: one example . To make it very simple, bebop players changed that accents all the time using it to accent the melodic line. If you want to make it very simple, accent the off-beat notes, and perhaps the 4:th beat ...


3

Well, they are accented by nature, but what it does mean, that's a different story. Consider the motif of Bach's small fuga G major (BWV 557) (source): The 1st and 3rd beat of the beginning of the Fuga are empty, yet there is an accent on them (Bach was very systematic, so yes, there is). Also, organ doesn't really have "loudness" for single notes....


12

This would be a doubly augmented fourth. They're very rare, but we do encounter them. It's hard to know if this is an error in publication or an error in writing the textbook itself. (In my opinion, a textbook should discuss doubly augmented and diminished intervals.) The good news is that, based on this question, you seem completely solid with intervals. ...


6

I agree with your interpretation that it's an error in the book. Give some thought to contacting the author to point out the mistake. The one time I did this, the next edition of the book was updated.


11

"I know that the 4/4 time signature is played as [ONE-two-Three-four]." How do you know this? Is this from standard music training? In any time signature we need to somehow express the periodicity of the meter. There is a concept called metric accents. In reality you don't "need" to accent the strong beats of a time signature but ...


4

Good question! Made me think. The first beat of a bar - any bar - is generally accented, but by how much varies considerably, and sometimes depending on the phrasing, and the actual notes involved, it's not accented at all. Had there been a phrase mark over all six notes, then I wouldn't expect any accent on that F note. As it stands, it could have an accent ...


3

TL;DR: two things: (1) modal interchange, borrowing many notes from the parallel minor key, (2) done by using (largely) a quartal voicing. Both aspects can be applied separately. You can do modal interchange without using quartal chords, and quartal chords without modal interchange. It could be a stack of fourths and an E on top: E - A - D - G - C - E. Try ...


1

The song is in the key of E. The first verse starts with Emaj7, but in the second verse the pianist interrupts it with passing C chord (or perhaps C triad is an upper structure of Am7 or Fmaj7?, I'm not 100% sure). It is a chord borrowed (via modal interchange) from the minor subdominant key of Am. The bass doesn't follow piano and simply plays B note, but ...


1

I guess you want to adjust the song to your voice range, while preserving the original key. So what you really want to do is compose a new melody for the song. There are several approaches, depending on what elements of the original melody you want to preserve You propose to shift the melody by a fixed number of semitones. This won't work, unless you shift ...


1

This a rather complicated question with a broad scope. The question is really how to compose a melody that fits against a given one. It's not as easy as (for example) singing or playing a fixed interval from the given melody. That could be done, but it tends to sound the group is singing with a thick texture rather than like an interesting embellishment on ...


3

It really doesn't work like that. You can change the key by a number of semitones, and sing the same intervals successively, but that's not what you are asking. You seem to be asking about harmony. Which isn't another voice so many semitones away, singing parallel. The intervals change constantly. Do that and you will sound out of tune with people singing in ...


1

You are asking about the Fourier Transform. It translates functions into a series of sine waves. I recommend you learn a bit about calculus before delving in though. If you are programing you'll be interested in MATLAB's DFT and FFT: https://www.mathworks.com/help/signal/ug/discrete-fourier-transform.html Waves such as square waves can be constructed using ...


4

Upon first glance a perfect fourth and augmented third seem for all intents and purposes equal... ...they are enharmonically equal. On a piano they are literally executed with the same keys. But by definition augmented and diminished intervals are considered dissonant. Why? I think the reason is clear when we consider whether the modified interval is ...


1

An interesting feature of Collier's Super...Scale is that there is a half-step between each segment. That is, the final pitch in one segment can serve as the leading tone to the next. That makes for very smooth harmonic shifts. Compare that with some of the "circle of fourths" patterns presented by jdjazz. When the transition is upward (e.g., C-D-E-...


6

Interesting question, and probably one that has concerned anyone who has tried to write a physical modelling or additive synthesizer - one that is 'in theory capable of every sound' - because of course, 'everything' is hard to work with. How do you categorise, parameterise, and control the sounds if your starting point is "everything"? I'm going to ...


6

At first sight some augmented intervals could be transformed in consonant intervals considering the semitones. So it might seem that mathematically this dissonance is only theoretically and supposed by the notation image. But, as Pipetus says in his comment even the fourth is dissonant. And yes, all augmented and diminished intervals are considered as ...


9

All augmented and diminished intervals are considered dissonant. The interval C-E# is only equivalent to C-F in a tempered scale (particularly the equal-temperament that most keyboards now use.) On stringed and wind instruments as well as with voices, C-E# is different from C-F. Augmented intervals generally expand and diminished intervals contract. Perfect, ...


3

To begin with the end of my searches, it seems that the most frequently recommended book covering Klezmer theory (among other Klezmer topics) is "The Compleat Klezmer", by Henry Sapoznik. Here is the blurb from Amazon: (Tara Books). This book is the definitive anthology by the world's foremost authority on klezmer music. Features an in-depth ...


0

You're overthinking it. What composer would care what something like that looks like? Concentrate on using your ears. The sound of the mode comes from the intended tonic by the composer. If I take C Ionian (Major) and emphasize the second degree (D) in a melody, then I'm playing Dorian. If I emphasize E, I'm playing Phygian and so on through the seven ...


0

I think the program used to typeset the original score had issues with the alignment of distinct (sticks up vs sticks down) voices. I've modified the supplied snap to show how it should have looked:


2

I'm going to disagree with a lot of the existing answers: On a string instrument, there are some note patterns that can't be played - at least not neatly or quickly. Double stops - playing two notes at once - have been mentioned; It's not possible to simultaneously play more than one note on the same string (although you can usually use different strings ...


3

A mnemnonic for which mode turns into which is numbering them 1-7 but starting from Aeolian rather than Ionian. Every mode reversed is the mode which brings the sum of the two up to 8. So Aeolian (1) is Mixolydian (7) reversed, Locrian (2) is Lydian (6), Ionian (3) is Phrygian (5), Dorian (4) is Dorian (4). As this numbering makes A the first and G the last,...


2

There might an error and the 16th notes are 32nd notes. Or the 16ths might be tuplets. I'd notate it like this in the former case: ... and like this in the latter case:


3

Considering your other question (24 16th notes in a 4/4 measure; Tuplets?), I suspect that the alignment here is correct, and that these aren't true 16th notes but rather triplets. That would mean that the first part of each triplet should be a sixteenth rest, which would of course be aligned with the bass eighth notes, and that those rests are not shown ...


4

(related to Pitch-class set theory ?) In a sense, you're correct that it's just an alternate nomenclature. However, that nomenclature facilitates the abstraction of musical analysis and understanding. It's much like the difference between Roman and Arabic numerals. You can do arithmetic with both, but Arabic numerals are better at making clear the patterns ...


14

They are sextuplets - 6 semiquavers in the time of 4. They probably thought it was obvious enough, since they are grouped clearly in 4 crochet beats.


0

So if this is from a pdf the original arranger has notated both hands in the bass clef (beat 1,2) and then both hands in the treble clef (3,4). This print was probably by "hidden" rests. If you scan this sheet it will cause problems but if you edit this bar by hand you can solve them.


0

Both systems have an eighth rest on the first beat. The notes are on different layers. The most simple solution is: just give in the notes a new, 4 voices in 4 different layers. alternately try: 1. -> explode music (utilities) and see what happens: -> choose different colours (view and select layer colours) if necessarily edit the notation -> ...


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