21

While the total length of a brass instrument is basically fixed, the ratio of conical to cylindrical piping is not set in stone for a trombone. It is true that the 6th partial is generally quite sharp, and needs to be lowered. There are several components that can affect the partials relative to one another, including: Mouthpiece cup depth Leadpipe (venturi)...


18

There are acoustical reasons for not wanting close voicing in the lower register; in short, the upper harmonics muddy each other up and fog up the sound. But in my experience, C4 is a really high limit; I can think of tons of scores with thirds below C4. Every musical environment is different, and sometimes you might want that slightly muddy sound. But if ...


16

The "N.V" just means No Vibrato.


13

That is a bend or a dip. You make a clear attack on the note and then do a very slight glissando around a quarter or half step down and then return to the original pitch.


12

A vamp is a repeating musical figure, like a guitar riff. In jazz, Latin jazz, and musical theater it’s often given for the accompaniment so that they can repeat as necessary during intros or solos, in which case it may be noted as “vamp until ready” or “vamp until cue.” Depending on the style and band, players may improvise on the vamp. The “open vamp” ...


11

This is only for comfort. The part where you hold the trombone is not very ergonomical so we search for as comfortable position as possible, with control of the instrument. Try various hand positions yourself to see which works best for you. Ideally you should not lift you left shoulder at all (do check in a mirror, lifting left shoulder will with time lead ...


10

you literally just point your bell into the stand, not directly touching it, but the sound should be muted by the stand


9

Closed vocings aren't bad, but you need to be aware of the register you are in no matter what you compose. In lower registers, having notes close together isn't always what you want. Specifically intervals that are supposed to have color like 3rds and 6ths both will sound "muddied" to most. Perfect internals typically don't observe this problem. This is also ...


9

It's a bend: an articulation mark representing a brief flattening of the note.The note is attacked in tune but is immediately flattened - by up to a semitone - before coming up to pitch again.


9

This is a massive topic that I'm not really qualified to talk about, but "length of tubing" is a highly idealized model. In actuality, every bend in the tube and every change in bore diameter will knock things away from this ideal. If an antinode for a harmonic sits close to some irregularity like this, the resonance will get modified in some way.


8

For trombone you'll typically see a number of mute markings, but the style of music changes what you'll frequently need. In traditional, classical music and other chamber style music you may see the term Con Sord or some similar Italian or even German markings (Con Sordino, Mit Dampfer, etc.). If a mute type is not stipulated, the vast majority of the time ...


8

There will be differences in the tone quality, because the baritone/euphonium is a conical bore instrument whereas the trombone is a cylindrical bore. (Generally speaking, this means that the trombone will have a brighter tone than the baritone/euphonium.) But in terms of range, the two instruments are pretty similar, and the baritone can certainly play the ...


7

Absolutely. JB Arban once said that people have the wrong idea about embouchure - that it's a fixed thing like a statue. He said that embouchure is fluid - you need to do what's right and what sounds good. I am not surprised that you have difficulties with flute after trombone; remember how each instrument works: The flute is like a fickle bottle - you ...


7

A trombone is the sum of its components. And the words of the economist, Thomas Sowell, "There are no solutions, only compromises..." applies to the trombone world as well. Part of why you might like the Bach are some of the things that you are trying to "fix." Similarly, part of the reason you liked the CL2000 valve may be because you also like the Conn ...


7

Human pitch discrimination is frequency dependent. There is a concept of critical bands. You can read about it in a text on Physics and music by Rigden. I keep promoting that text because I've taught out of it as several universities. There are probably many good texts on the subject. In short, there is a critical minimum frequency difference at which ...


7

A lot of our 'knowledge' of overtones comes from textbooks describing the behaviour of a perfect, massless string or of an air column in a perfect cylindrical tube. Real instruments are more complicated than that! The wonderful thing about the trombone is that, unlike trumpet or other valved instruments - there's no great virtue in aiming to build it 'in ...


6

You really need to get more specific than "mouth muscles". The formation of your mouth and lips that is used to create a tone on the mouthpiece is called your embouchure (colloquially referred to as "chops" by many musicians). Once you identify what this is and what it feels like, as well as which muscles exactly are being used, it basically amounts to ...


6

Like the comments said, it's a combination of both. As a trombone player, we have the muscle memory to hit notes at what should be in tune, but what is in tune may also vary. You tune the notes based on what is in tune in context (surrounding ensemble/accompanist), the tuning will not always be A = 440, so you need to have the ability to hear tuning and ...


6

Aha! Pictures definitely help. So let's talk about this one component at a time Slide Your slide is all nickel slide. (Bach slides that are lightweight (LT42) are also made of a nickel-brass alloy, without oversleeves). The problem with nickel is that many people are allergic to it. Your cork barrel is pitted as is the part of the slide that you would ...


6

Listening for cue parts in specifically the Bolero is difficult, because of many repetitions and subtle changes, so I fully understand your difficulty, and I too get lost most of the times I listen to this piece. As others mentioned, I would expect the conductor to help your section with this problem, as he has the overview. But I can also offer some other ...


6

In my experience, there is some truth to it. The tuba and trombone have two very different sounds, and a tuba player trying to sound like a trombone, however inadvertently, only leads to frustration on the part of a (good) ensemble leader. In short, the sound of a trombone naturally has a bit more edge to it, and it's only too easy for a young tubist to try ...


6

The ideal model of standing waves in an ideally rigid tube, and of waves on a string, etc are very good at predicting data but nor perfect. They are ideal models. Not only do slight deviation from these models cause differences between actual harmonics and predicted harmonics but the systems don't obey the ideal physics used to solve the equations in the ...


5

I'm going to start as if you have already played a brass instrument and have some knowledge of them. As a former trumpet player and teacher I found that if you copy the same position and feeling w/o a mouthpiece as with a mouthpiece you can get great benefit. Trombone or trumpet. So practice the same embouchure w/o the mouthpiece. Form the same shape w/ the ...


5

TL;DR version: Will low C be as hard as Bb to play even though it is not a pedal tone? Nope, harder Are pedal tones easier to play on large bore? Kind of, but not to an important degree Can you get luscious pedal tones down to E1 (no trigger) with a large bore tenor, or do you need a bass? Depends on your definition of luscious, but listen to Joe ...


5

As a general rule, I've always found the trigger Eb to be a little easier than regular F and E. But then again, I have a relatively large bore trombone. Is it possible there's something wrong with your F attachment? Does it sound perfectly fine on higher notes? It might be helpful to play higher notes and scales using entirely (or mostly) the trigger in ...


5

As a trombonist, I've used D3 as the cutoff though I make context dependent exceptions. When you say: or to put the 1st trombone up into the higher part of its practical range, crossing higher than the alto voices That this isn't as big of a deal as you might think for trombonists, depending upon the difficulty level you are writing for. If it is a ...


5

Muddiness depends on other considerations as well, such as volume and tuning. Just thirds (i.e., in a harmonic ratio of 6/5 or 5/4) will sound clearer than equal-temperament thirds. Check out some renaissance counterpoint, which generally works very well with trombones playing the lower voices. I'm thinking of Schütz Die mit Tränen säen, SWV 42, and Selig ...


5

'Soli' generally refers to an exposed, soloistic part but played by several players or a whole section. Without seeing the score it's impossible to generalize, but it's possible that it's intended that only one player from each part plays. Your band director will explain what they want, but you should probably have the part prepared in case you have to play ...


5

'Solo' is a featured passage for one player. 'Soli' is a featured passage for more than one player or instrument. It may mean the whole trombone section play it. Like 'Heads up, guys! You've got the tune!' Or that just one player on each part is to play. I think we can assume that if it's in the third part, at least SOMEONE from that section will ...


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