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The ideal model of standing waves in an ideally rigid tube, and of waves on a string, etc are very good at predicting data but nor perfect. They are ideal models. Not only do slight deviation from these models cause differences between actual harmonics and predicted harmonics but the systems don't obey the ideal physics used to solve the equations in the ...


A lot of our 'knowledge' of overtones comes from textbooks describing the behaviour of a perfect, massless string or of an air column in a perfect cylindrical tube. Real instruments are more complicated than that! The wonderful thing about the trombone is that, unlike trumpet or other valved instruments - there's no great virtue in aiming to build it 'in ...


While the total length of a brass instrument is basically fixed, the ratio of conical to cylindrical piping is not set in stone for a trombone. It is true that the 6th partial is generally quite sharp, and needs to be lowered. There are several components that can affect the partials relative to one another, including: Mouthpiece cup depth Leadpipe (venturi)...


This is a massive topic that I'm not really qualified to talk about, but "length of tubing" is a highly idealized model. In actuality, every bend in the tube and every change in bore diameter will knock things away from this ideal. If an antinode for a harmonic sits close to some irregularity like this, the resonance will get modified in some way.

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