9

First of all, let's get this fact out of the way: 24 pitches in an octave is a rather simplistic notational convention. It doesn't reflect the actual state of affairs at all. Actual number of notes can be much higher. One practitioner, for instance, claims to have identified at least 12 notes between his lowest e-flat and his highest e-natural. Anyone who ...


5

I'm not sure about a "family tree" per se, but you may be interested in reading Rhythmic Archetypes in Instrumental Music from Africa and the Diaspora. It's a scholarly article available for free at Music Theory Online. The author (James Burns) discusses six rhythmic archetypes in instrumental music of Africa and the Diaspora. (Here I slightly broaden your ...


2

No matter what the style of music, in this day an age it's getting harder to find people who want to get together and play. The emphasis is so much less on performance and so much more on recording. Being in a similar situation in that I've recently begun playing after a long layoff I've found that the best way to find people is to make yourself visible in ...


2

Kit Kitson has some books (rather old) that do discuss some ideas historically. Thomas Christensen's The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory also discusses some ideas in context.


2

The book that immediately comes to my mind is "Counterpoint: The Polyphonic Vocal Style of the Sixteenth Century" by Knud Jeppesen (1892–1974). However it is not a 100% match to your requirements, it still covers many of the topics, you are interested in. Although I am quite sure it does not contain any comparisons to non-"Western" music, it has a very ...


2

Merely having consistent time intervals establishes a pulse, but not a meter. You can very well have an irregular succession of groupings of events that defies any single time signature. Imagine a work song that accompanies rhythmic chopping of something (perhaps logs swimming by, or stones to hew...). The items of work might require one, two, three, etc. ...


1

I would assume that the concept of scale degrees is present in all cultures. Notes sound good together when they have higher harmonics in common (e.g. the third harmonic of C coincides with the second harmonic of G) -- a concept universal to all humans. "Harmony" however is the occurrence of these notes at the same time, as opposed to in succession, which ...


1

I briefly studied Gypsy history, and there is one theory that the Gypsies originated in India and migrated north into Eastern Europe and Hungary, passing through Turkey. One of the musical forms they would have brought with them is the Indian Raga. In the Carnatic Raga there is a scale form that includes a raised second note, playing up what we would call ...


1

Rock, pop, and rhythm and blues often emphasize the second and last beat. This emphasis also serves as a backdrop to funk (more below). Reggae has an even heavier emphasis on the same beats often accompanied with an offbeat emphasis. Regarding the bonus question, jazz emphasizes the offbeat and in the jazz "subculture" the band leader typically counts in by ...


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