If you have C scale, C, D, E, F, G, A, H, C this is already Ionian. C dorian scale is when you play same tones but start from second tone, in this case D. I am correct?

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    Hi bobouch, welcome to Music Stack Exchange. I feel like your question might have been answered here: music.stackexchange.com/questions/6885/…. That's why I flagged it as a duplicate. For the record, the names of the notes are C D E F G A B (not H), and what you are actually describing is D dorian, not C dorian.
    – coconochao
    Dec 3 '18 at 20:17
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    @coconochao In some sountries, H is used to name what Americans (and other countries) call B♮, while B means B♭. OP is correct.
    – user45266
    Dec 3 '18 at 23:01
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    I agree completely with @coconochao. You've mixed up the rule just a bit. Always think in terms of the 'parent scale.' C ionian and D dorian have the same notes because they come from the same parent scale (C major). C ionian and C dorian don't have the same notes because they come from different parent scales. C dorian comes from the parent scale of Bb major, because C is the second step of a Bb major scale. Pick any note: A, for example. A dorian would come from the parent scale of G major because A is the second step of a G major scale. Thus, A dorian and G ionian would have the same notes.
    – jdjazz
    Dec 4 '18 at 0:56

You are correct that D dorian is the same notes as C ionian, e.g. you start on the second note. As for the other modes you can generate them by starting the ionian on a different note. The seven diatonic modes are related to Ionian as follows.

Note ........ Mode

1 ........ Ionian

2 ........ Dorian

3 ........ Prygian

4 ........ Lydian

5 ........ Mixolydian

6 ........ Aeolian (natural minor)

7 ........ Locrian

Writing a melody in one of these modes does not necessarily sound like a tune written in the relative "Ionian" or major key. The reason is that each mode emphasizes different tonal centers as one plays patterns in each mode. Clearly, if you play the D dorian mode by continue to search for C, E, G, and B to play them at the beginning or end of phrases or on string beats you will just create a C major sounding tune. Some of these modes have an ethnic historical context dating back to ancient Greece (or other European countries or regions). The fact that they are all related is nice and makes the patterns easy to remember but each has a distinct character.

To illustrate the later consider playing the opening line to "Joy to the World", which is just a descending major scale. Do it C on a piano or other instrument. Now play the same phrase, rhythmically, starting on C but descending on each of these modes.

A similar device can be used on the Melodic minor scale to generate related modes.

I hope that helps somewhat.

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