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Can someone help me identify the chord in the second-to-last measure? For reference, the piece is in the key of C# minor.

music score

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    I think your analysis of V7/V makes sense. As labeled, there’s a particularly piquant accented passing tone in the melody, as well as several passing tones in the bass. – Pat Muchmore Mar 22 '18 at 7:23
  • @PatMuchmore why a comment? Could make an answer. – Tim Mar 22 '18 at 7:44
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    @Tim Is the question on-topic? Single chord identification? Imagine if it were asking for the second to last chord in a Lady Ga-Ga song. – Todd Wilcox Mar 22 '18 at 12:51
  • @ToddWilcox - if so, why no vtc? – Tim Mar 22 '18 at 22:03
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    Personally, I support the question remaining open. Especially when one considers the double sharps, it's a perfectly legitimate question from someone trying to make sense of a chord s/he cannot understand. – Richard Mar 24 '18 at 23:11
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As Pat's comment shows, your analysis of V7/V is correct.

In other words, this is a D♯7 chord, meaning that the E♯ and G♯ in the bass are non-chord tones (passing tones, more specifically). What's especially tricky about this chord is the B♯ on the downbeat in the right hand; this is also a passing tone, but it's accented (=on beat one) and lasts twice as long as the chord tone A♯.

Returning to the V7/V analysis, this means that it's actually the V7 of the next chord, which is G♯.

An easy way to spot V7/V in the future is the use of the raised fourth scale degree. Here, that pitch is F𝄪.

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I agree this is a V7/V chord. D# major is kind of a made-up chord not found in nature (it doesn't exist in a regular scale due to the F double-sharp.) But it exists theoretically, as seen above. It certainly would look better as an Eb chord, but since it leads to the G# chord, theoretically it makes more sense as a D# chord. The B#, E#, and G# are all accented passing tones.

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