14

The star in the middle of the staff actually points us to a footnote given at the end of this first book. In my edition (Boosey & Hawkes), the footnote states: The rhythmic feeling of the suspensions should be emphasized by some energetic movement such as tapping with the foot in the places marked by rhythmic signatures between the staves. From a ...


13

Based on my experience reading and playing many Latin styles over the years, write it in 4/4. There really should be no special accommodation for 3-3-2 rhythms in this piece and in general, Latin music. This piece does not always use the 3-3-2 rhythmic grouping. Both hands play rhythms and patterns at times that are 100% 4/4. If you write it in 3-3-2, the ...


9

It's a bit simpler than that. Syncopation is accenting the off beat, especially accenting in between beats. For example, "Superbad" or "Mother Popcorn" by James Brown. A single rhythm can be syncopated. It's just an unusual stress pattern. Polyrhythm is playing two rhythms at once. For instance, on the piano, playing straight eighth notes (quavers) on the ...


9

I would stray away from your first notation, as you've sensed. Trained musicians won't find it too confusing, but it's uncommon enough that it may occasionally trip someone up. (I admit that your last measure in the right hand, with the dotted-quarter rest, looks really strange to me even though I know exactly what it's saying. It's just not something we're ...


8

Your notation is correct. When notating syncopation, the goal is to visually preserve the strong (part of the) beat. In 4/4 time, that means making clear where beats 1 and 3 lie, which your notation does and the "original" version does not. A couple of references articulating this idea: here and here.


7

If I understand you right, mathematicians and scientists call that the period. If some thing (such as a drum line) consists of a pattern which repeats in a cycle, then the length of that pattern is the period. So, for example: KICK KICK KICK KICK KICK KICK KICK KICK ... - The period of this drum line is 1 beat. kick SNARE kick SNARE kick SNARE kick SNARE .....


7

It is standard practice to write 4/4 measures as if there was an invisible barline in the middle, forcing syncopation to be broken down to two 2/4 half-measures. (Excluding whole notes.) So your modified version is "better". It makes syncopation more explicitly visible if you're used to having things spoon-fed like that. ;) I'm sure you could get ...


6

There's nothing wrong with what's in the picture. All major subdivisions are respected so one can play it at sight. The tied Cs make it clear that there is a note held from beat 2 to beat 3.


6

Meter is the regular, hierarchical pattern of beats. Syncopation occurs when something in the music creates a competing pattern of beats, typically when these beats are displaced from the overall meter. For instance, instead of 1 & 2 & 3 &, which is the overall meter in 3/4, an example of syncopation would be the displaced 1 & 2 & 3 &;...


6

Your version is correct. In the example below A is fine (to the extent that B would be considered incorrect). C is acceptable, and even preferred to D in some circumstances. The mainstream musical world is not yet ready for E.


5

Off-beat playing is a case of syncopation, but syncopation includes more than off-beat playing. Both terms refer to playing accented notes in places other than the strong down beats, e.g. other than beat 1 and 3 in case of 4/4 tempo. Offbeat however mainly refers to the other down beats, the weaker beats, (e.g. beat 2 and 4 in typical 4/4 time), while ...


4

I don't really know much about piano but what I do on the guitar is to listen to a drum beat (usually latin or jazz for complexity) and then I replicate the beat in my strum or by playing single notes. When I get good and clean at it, I look for another beat and work on that. I have found that it helps me a lot when it comes time to improvise. I have a ...


4

This seems pretty good: The FreeDictionary by Farlex, Encyclopedia: Syncopation Syncopation (sĭng'kəpā`shən, sĭn'–) [New Gr.,=cut off ], in music, the accentuation of a beat that normally would be weak according to the rhythmic division of the measure. Although the normally strong beat is not usually effaced by the process, there are ...


4

some things that may help: slow it down (I know you said you tried this, but slow it down until you can play it. it may need to get ridiculously slow but you will not be able to play it until you can play it slowly. if you need to break it down until the 8th note pace is 5 seconds apart do it...beat 1: play and sing a note, thinK about beat 1&, hold ...


4

Use a metronome at a very slow tempo and try to sing the rhythms accurately using some kind of counting scheme, like "One-e-and-uh, two-e-and-uh", then gradually increase the tempo. If you can't get the rhythm at a slow tempo, you can't master it at a fast tempo. Once you can accurately sing a musical line, it translates unreasonably well to playing on an ...


4

It's fairly straightforward 'push' notes. They're played earlier than he thinks they should be! Try counting 1&2&3&4& for a whole bar, and get him to clap on each &. Then sing the notes, on each &. Then, slowly, play the notes on each &. Before you join in. What I tend to do is tap a foot 4 to the bar, and pretend it hits ...


4

Yes, this is very common in popular music with a Latin influence. It's like the first half of the 'clave' rhythm that underlies much of this genre.


3

As a matter of fact, Baroque music does sometimes get a half-bar "out-of-phase" with the barlines. I've addressed this phenomenon in a previous answer here: Can you introduce fugue themes in the middle of a measure? If so, how?. In fact, just last night, I was noticing this happens in the final movement of the 3rd Brandenburg Concerto. After two bars of ...


3

One term that might fit is "grouping." In studies of rhythm and meter, we refer to grouping as a hierarchical structure of units created by various means within the music. We could say that the grouping of the disco line is one beat, or that the rock line has a duple grouping. This term is used constantly in studies of rhythm and meter, and it's especially ...


3

You could borrow a term from poetry: metrical foot.


3

If you want an un-measured 'fast' gracenote, use an acciaccatura (the one with a slash) rather than an appoggiatura. Apart from that, your notation appears clear. I don't understand your statement 'it's about the rhythm not the exact timing'. Rhythm IS timing. You've put the note at a precise rhythmic position. If that's where you want it to go, good. ...


3

Ragtimes are notable for the pianists left hand pattern of playing a low chord root followed by the offbeat 8th note full chord voicing. This creates an "ump-pah" type of 2/4 rhythm that underlies the right hand playing complex syncopations on top to make the music an early form of piano solo dance music. Stride pianists become staples of New Orleans ...


3

I'd say syncopation is the term super ordinate for the beat between accented beats and the and off-beat: Syncopation implies a short note or rest "on-beat" followed by a longer accentuated note, while off-beat can just be the notes between the the beats (e.g. "off-beat" clapping) or the rhythmically characteristic notes that are played in advance. Denis ...


3

Neither of the first gives a 3+3+2 rhythm in the bass. I've looked a lot of Latin music from Cuban, Brazilian, Argentinian, etc. and all of them use the following: dotted quarter, eighth-tied-to-quarter, quarter. I tend to think of this rhythm as two dotted-quarters followed by a quarter, but I haven't seen it notated that way. The point as mentioned in ...


3

The arguments of the other answers respecting the beats are all correct. But there are exceptions like the example A and C of Laurence Payne which show a clear symmetric structure and also the group 3-3-2 notated by two dotted fourth are common. The goal is the readability of the notation and if we have a repeated rhythmic pattern 3-3-2 this notation is ok. ...


3

I think the answer is no. First let's make clear syncopating a melody or starting with a rest on beat one is not something new... Those two examples are from Haydn, piano sonatas 11 and 12. Notice that in the first example the syncopation is achieved basically by inserting an eight note rest at the start of the treble line to shift if off the beat. ...


3

First of all, a quote: Duke Ellington said "If it sounds good, it’s good music, and if it doesn’t, then it is the other kind." So if it "sounds better to you," pay attention to that feeling and try to figure out why. But to answer your question: Are there cases where rhythms between instruments might be completely discrepant? Absolutely....


2

Syncopation isn't essentially a multiple-player thing, though in a band some players may be laying down 'four on the floor' while another plays syncopated rhythms over this steady beat. Easier to illustrate than to explain: Polyrhythm is basically what you said. 'Micro polyrhythms' are much more common than whole sections though. Wheras suncopation is ...


2

Try "Down beat rate". In the software, put text with a dropdown list as shown below. Down beat rate : (1|2|3|4|...) ( with default value as number of beats per measure) In help page/notes, add something like this. "Down beat rate : Down beat at every (1|2|3|4)beat(s)"


2

First - don't worry about it. Syncopation is a constant feature of popular (and other) music. You'd almost be surprised if everyone DID follow a plain 'four on the floor' rhythm! What's so important about labelling a rhythm 'syncopated' or not? But if you want to, tap your foot to the music. Where a prominent rhythm in the music aligns with your foot ...


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